GACH, Kazimierz, son
GADECKI, Genowefa, wife
GAJEWSKI, Maria, wife
GAJEWSKI, Stefan (not related)
GAJEWSKI, Zofia (not related)
see TURCZYNSKI, Boleslaw & Helena, parents ?
Maciej found near his house
a homeless woman, who wanted to commit suicide, following the loss of her
children. He took the Jewish lady in and kept her for two years.
His Yad Vashem medal was conferred in Lublin, Poland, on May 6, 1999, according
to the Israeli Embassy.
GAJOWNICZEK, Marianna see
IMIOLEK, Antoni & Czeslawa, parents ?
GALACH, Jozef (not related)
GALAS, Stanislaw, son
David Efrati, having blue
eyes and blond hair, lived in a close-knit family of eight children in
the Jewish quarter in Warsaw, where his parents had a business with materials
for shoemakers. David was sent to the Jewish school, but once punished
by the teacher, he refused to continue and his parents had to move him
to a Polish school, where he learned the language. The Germans made
on him a very good impression, but soon he suffered from them. He
started to make a living by smuggling goods and met a Polish colleague,
Stanislaw Galas, called Stasiek. He had many brushes with death,
but being very decisive and resourceful, when he was in utter danger and
despair, he always got help from Stasiek and his family: father, Jan and
his daughter Niusia. Jan was a janitor of a building where he gave
refuge to six Jews with a little girl in the cellar. But as the Jews
quarreled much among them, David did not want to stay any longer there
and told Stasiek that either he will take him to his home or he, David,
will return to the ghetto; they can kill him. And Stasiek took him
home. After a few days all the Jews in that cellar were killed and
Jan, Stasiek's father with them. But Jan's wife and children did
not show David that they are afraid of keeping him. David traveled
to many cities in order to escape Jews' enemies, be it the Germans, Lithuanians,
Latvians or Ukrainians. He even jumped from a train going to Treblinka,
escaped from the Trawniki camp, went to Lvov, met thieves who wanted to
teach him how to steal, worked on Ukrainian peasants farms, always presenting
himself as a Pole and Catholic. Finally he found a Jewish family
who was happy to meet him. He lost contact with Stasiek and Niusia
in 1948, when he went to Israel. He returned to Poland in 1963 and
found only Niusia, ill and unhappy. He found Stasiek in Warsaw only
in 1960. Niusia and her mother were not living any more. David
took care of Stasiek and helped him as he could. Stasiek married
and has a son. In 1984(5) Stasiek and his father got the recognition
as "Righteous". See: Isakiewicz, op. cit.
GALECKI, Waleria, see CIESLAKOWSKI-GALECKI,
GARBULINSKI, Marian, son
GARCZYNSKI, Zofia, wife
GARDZINSKI, Eugeniusz (1904-)
The Gardzinskis lived in
the village of Borowe, near Mogilnica Grojecka, Chelm prov. They
helped many Jews, especially children. First they took into their
house the two children of Klementyna's sister, whose father, Zygmunt Jaffe,
was Jewish, and kept them till the end of the occupation. They also
housed Eugenia Erlich, nine years old, who remained under their care until
she became independent. From the winter of 1943 till March 1945 they
took care of the two year old Danuta Gorny, whose father claimed her after
the war. From October 1944 till the end they harbored also Stanislawa
and Jozef Zalewski. All survived the war and went to different countries.
See: Grynberg, op. cit.
see HENNIUS-KOWALEWSKI, Maria, sister
GARGASZ, Zofia, born ROZYCKI,
The couple farmed at Brzozow,
Krosno prov. In 1942 they found hiding in their attic an elderly
Jewish woman, Henia Katz, ill and frightened after escaping the deportation
of Jews from Sanok. Being both members of the Seventh Day Adventist
Church, they decided, after some hesitation, to nurse her back to health
and harbor her. A neighbor betrayed them and the couple with Henia
were arrested and sentenced to death on April 26, 1944. Their sentences
were signed by the following judges: Pooht, Stumpel and Dr. Aldenhoff,
and witnessed by Dr. Voltereck and Dr. Naumann «on behalf of the
German people ». But as the Red Army approached swiftly, Hans
Frank, the governor of the occupied General government (Central Poland)
commuted the death sentence for a concentration camp. Such commutation
was extremely rare in similar cases. Jakub and Zofia survived and
were liberated from the camp by the Allies. See: Paldiel, op. cit.
Grynberg mentions that Henia Katz was sheltered with her little girl and
that Zofia, wishing to save her husband, took all the responsibility exclusively
on herself, motivating her action by religious precepts, which did not
influence the German judges. See: Paldiel, op. cit.
see BLASZCZYK, Stanislaw & A.. parents
GAWALEK, Julian, son
GAWALEK, Stanislawa, daughter
GAWEL, Jan, son
GAWEL, Jozef, son
GAWEL, Szczepan (not related)
GAWEL, Maria, wife
According to the testimony
presented to Yad Vashem by Mrs. Regina F., she and her aunt, Alexandra
F., a dentist, were harbored for a certain time by Mrs. Shaefer, an elderly
widow of a Protestant pastor in Staszow, Tarnobrzeg prov. Before
that, the two women were hiding in the woods, like many other Jews.
After a few months in the forest, with winter approaching, they were advised
to ask Szczepan and Maria for shelter. This poor peasant couple at
Wisniowa, not far from Czajkow and Staszow, kept at that time fourteen
(14) other such people; some of them were hidden in the basement, others
in the barn. When that place also became dangerous, the two women
changed their hiding place for the home of Franciszek and Katarzyna Brzyszcz
(q.v.). The letter from Yad Vashem recognizing them as "Righteous"
was dated Sept. 5, 1996. Case 6510 started in 1987
GAWEL-ROMASZKAN, Teresa (not
rel.) see STRASZEWSKI-GAWEL-ROMASZKAN, T.
GAWELCZYK, Bronislawa, wife
GAWENDA-KARASEK, Zofia see
KARASEK, Leon, Jerzy & Teresa
GAWLAK-SLEZAK, Regina (born
GAWLIK, Hildegarda, wife
GAWRYCH, Aleksandra, wife
At the beginning of 1940
the 13 years old Frieda Aronson worked as a helper to a seamstress in Stanislawow.
She met there the wife of the forester, Aleksandra Gawrych, who proposed
her to live with them and sew for the couple's children. The Gawrychs
harbored also four (4) other Jews from Warsaw. In March of 1943 the
estate owner discovered them and denounced them to the Gestapo, who arrested
and shot Jan Gawrych. Frieda at that moment was not at home; she
escaped and after much wandering, found shelter in a convent until the
end of the occupation. Jan and Aleksandra were recognized as "Righteous"
in 1999. The medal received for them their daughter, Jadwiga Gawrych
on May 1st, 2000 in Warsaw, as announced by the Israeli Embassy.
GASKA, Zbigniew (not related)
GASKA, Bronislawa, wife,
During the occupation Bronislawa
lived with her parents in Stanislawow. In August 1942 her father,
Jan Tkacz, brought 13-year old Sylvia Andacht, who escaped deportation
to an extermination camp. The Tkacz couple got false documents for
her and transferred her to Podhajec, to Zbigniew Gaska's, fiancé
and later husband of Bronislawa. The Gaska couple moved Sylvia in
1943 to their acquaintances' in Lvov. Sylvia went to Germany in 1944
as a Pole, where she stayed until the liberation. See: Grynberg,
op. cit. Jan Tkacz is not recognized.
GBUREK, Franciszka (1889-1944)
GBUREK-PLACHKY, Anna (1914-1990)
GBUREK, Ryszard, (1915-1963)
GBUREK-KAMSKI, Maria (1924-)
The family lived at Giszowiec,
near Myslowice, Katowice prov. Franciszek was a coal-miner.
They harbored five (5) Jews: Szloma and Uszer Stajnfeld, Golda and
Rocha Tornhajm and Zygmunt Weinreich, from August 1943 till the end of
the occupation. After the war the Jews left for Israel. Zygmunt
attested to their entire disinterestedness. See: Grynberg, op cit.
GEBEL, Antonina, wife
GEDYCH, Jadwiga Danuta
see KLOSS-GEDYCH, J.
GEDZALA, Anna, wife
GELBHART-SITKO, Wanda see
SITKO, Maria, mother?
GENDERKA, Jozefa, born MOSKOWCZANIN
Jozefa took into her home
till the end of the occupation 14 year old Hania, daughter of Roza Apelstein.
Hania now lives in Israel. See Grynberg, op. cit.
GERC, Malwina see
SAWKO, Jozef & Antonina, parents
GERE, Anita, wife
The Geres lived in Cracow.
Before the war they had befriended the Dattners, who managed to escape
from the ghetto. Thanks to the Geres, Bruno Dattner, his wife Janina
and son Edward left with false papers for Warsaw, where they went straight
to Anita's sister, Otylia Emilia Trnka, (q.v.) superior of the St. Lazarus
Hospital. She drove them to the apartment of her other sister at
Wlochy, near Warsaw, which was unoccupied at that time. After a few
months there the Dattners rented another apartment at Zoliborz, suburb
of Warsaw. Bruno even found work in a commercial company. He
took part in the Warsaw Uprising in a sapper unit and later went to Israel.
See: Grynberg, op. cit.
Maria see TOWARNICKI-GERSON. E.
GERULA, Katarzyna, wife
GETTER, Matylda, Mother (1870-1968)
Mother Matylda was superior
of the Warsaw province of the Sisters of the Family of Mary, which, in
that province alone, ran 20 orphanages, among them: Anin, Bialoleka, Chotomowo,
Pludy, Ulanowek, Zosinek. When the Germans started to liquidate Jews,
Mother Matylda gave the order that all her institutions have to give them
help. These institutions went on to save ca. 500 Jewish children.
One of these Sisters, Stanislawa Kaniewska from "Zosinek" at Miedzylesie
near Warsaw, describes what it meant. The orphanage counted ca. 70
children, of which 10 were Jewish. One of them was a nine year old
girl, who was so terrified by the sight of Germans, that her fright immediately
attracted their attention when some of them appeared at the orphanage and
caused them to ask if the Sisters do not keep Jewish children. Stanislawa,
fluent in German, assured them that only Polish Catholic children are in
the orphanage and another Sister, Maria Czechowicz, distracted them from
that dangerous questioning by talking to them in French, which one of them
knew. In the last days of July 1944, when Russians reached the river
Vistula, they bombarded the city by artillery and from the air. Several
people were killed, the chapel was destroyed, but nobody from the orphanage
was harmed. On August 1st (first day of the Warsaw Uprising), during
lunch, for which there were only broad beans, the Germans suddenly stormed
into the orphanage and ordered everybody to leave and to march toward Warsaw.
Soon the other orphanage from Miedzylesie, "Ulanowek", with the youngest
children, joined them. Those children remained at Grochow, while
"Zosinek" went on to Saska Kepa, both in Warsaw. As the children
had nothing to eat, Stanislawa asked the parish priest to announce their
predicament in church and parishioners flocked with food. Stanislawa,
realizing that this was not sufficient, returned with the older girls to
Miedzylesie for food. Germans forbade them to go there but allowed
them to go to Anin, where the Sisters had another orphanage. There
they were bombarded again by artillery fire by both Germans and by Russians
at the same time. On August 13, Germans ordered the evacuation also
of this second orphanage. Sister Stanislawa explained the situation
to the German command. At the beginning, the commanding officer refused
any help, but finally agreed to give them horse carts for the children
and food. After another bombing from the air by the Soviets, Sister
Stanislawa ordered the drivers to go not to Modlin, as indicated the Germans,
but to Pludy, another of their orphanages, this time with 80 children and
with the food. Having arrived there, she got some food for the children
left at Saska Kepa. When she returned there, the children received
her with tears. She fed them and they all went to Pludy. The
conditions there were very difficult, as several orphanages were reunited
there: altogether 500 children, of which a hundred (100) were Jewish.
Germans came continuously to search the house, especially one, particularly
obnoxious, returned every day during three weeks, looking for Jewish children
and for a Jewish priest, father Puder, but as much as he searched he could
not find them. He announced that if he discovers even one Jew, all
would be shot. Among continuous threats the Sister refused three
times to leave the orphanage. The soldiers put her against the wall
and under guard when they were expelling again all the children to Modlin.
The superior, Sister Romualda, entreated the Germans to leave the two and
three year olds as too young to walk so far, famished as they were.
They acquiesced and allowed seven Sisters, among them Stanislawa, to stay
with them. On the third night there arrived a German doctor, furious
that not all the children had left and requested to see the German-speaking
Sister. But when he saw the miserable state of children in the cellars,
he was appalled. He promised her to reward her after the war for
her heroism. She thanked him but told him that she does it not for
German rewards but to save the Polish children and that they need food,
as they have only rye grain to eat. He promised to send them all
kinds of food and delicacies. At that moment a shell fell in the
place where both of them were standing and killed some people. The
German doctor and the Polish Sister were both knocked out. But the
food never arrived: the Germans fled. The next day Polish soldiers
from the Kosciuszko division (formed in Soviet Russia out of Poles deported
to Siberia at the beginning of the war, who did not manage to join the
2nd Polish Corps of General Anders) liberated them. One of the priests
celebrated Mass in the cellar; everybody wept. See: Smolski, op.
cit. (pp. 300-308) Jadwiga Skrzydlowski from Warsaw in her statement
relates how she herself and many others were also saved by Mother Matylda.
See: Wronski & Zwolakowa, op. cit.
GIBES, Jozefa, wife
They saved the family of
Szymon Goldberg at Jadowniki Mokre, Tarnobrzeg prov. The Goldbergs
left for France. See: Wronski & Zwolakowa, op. cit.
GIERWATOWSKI, Barbara, daughter
GILL, Janina, wife
GILUK, Gabriela see
NIEDOJADLO, Jozefa, mother
see OLSZAKOWSKI-GLAZER, Z.
GLINA, Anastazja, wife
GLINKA, Maria, wife
The couple lived in Warsaw.
Stefan was a member of a sport club and maintained contacts with his Jewish
colleagues. As administrator of many Jewish houses vacated forcibly
on the "Aryan" side of the city, he managed to harbor them in these houses
under false identities, giving to some of them the birth certificates of
his deceased relations. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
GLINSKI, Leonard (1917-)
Leonard was active in the
resistance movement in Warsaw. He worked in a building company owned
by Stanislaw Pacha, who knew before the war the Jewish family Potok from
Bedzin, in Upper Silesia. When the 13 years old daughter of Sewek
Potok, Alina, escaped the Bedzin ghetto, she came to Warsaw and went to
Pacha, where she befriended Stanislaw. Through his contacts with
the resistance movement, he got for her a baptismal certificate from Lvov,
which stated that Alina is a 15 years old girl. As such she could
be sent to work in Austria, as a maid in the house of a physician.
Sewek Potok, who also survived, went to Vienna and brought his daughter
back. They left for Australia. Alina stays in touch with Leonard.
See Grynberg, op. cit.
GLOEH (GLOECH?) (1885-1980)
The chief Protestant pastor
of the Polish Army, with the rank of Colonel, Rev. Gloeh provided false
documents to many Jews. He gave ca. 160 birth and baptismal certificates
to Dr. Michal Litynski, ward head in the Ujazdowski Hospital, stamped with
the seal of an Augsburg-Protestant parish in Lomza, signed by its pastor,
Rev. Kacper Mikulski. Dr. Litynski gave personally 50 such forms
to Jews. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
GLAS, Stefan (-1044)
GLAS, Maria, wife
GLAS, Tadeusz, son
GLAS, Wlodzimierz, son
The Glas family lived at
Chrzanow, Katowice prov., where the father owned a carpenter's shop.
The sons presented to the Germans two Jewish women, Estera Fischer and
Ida Madanes, as workers hired by the owner, and harbored them in their
home. Later the two women were moved to Modrzejow. After the
war both went to Israel. See: Grynberg, op. cit
GLOS, Aleksander (1899-1953)
GLOS, Stanislawa, born SAWICKI
The Glos couple were peasants
farming at Kierzkowka, near Lubartow, Lublin prov., with two teenage sons:
Tadeusz (1927-1965) and Ryszard (1931-1976).
Frank Bleichman, whose whole
family perished in 1942, and who knew the Glos family, ran to them for
help in the fall of 1942 fleeing in the night from the deportation of Jews.
They hid him in the house and in the barn, treating him as a member of
the family. Later he joined the partisans but visited them often.
They helped also other Jews. Their recognition as "Righteous" dates
from June 14, 1998, announced by a letter from Yad Vashem of July 7, 1998.
This case, No. 8045, was started in 1986. The medal and certificate
were conferred on May 6, 1999 in Lublin to the widow of Tadeusz, Alfreda.
GLOWACKI, Henryk Lucjan (1906-)
GLOWACKI, Stanislawa (1905-1983)
GLOWACKI, Kazimierz (1929-)
The Glowackis worked in Warsaw
in a factory where worked also Lipman Gurman, whom they helped when he
found himself in the ghetto. They advised him to leave the ghetto
and promised to take care of him, but he refused in order to stay with
his parents. When he lost them, he decided to flee, which he did
on March 23, 1943, going straight to the Glowackis. The family had
only one room for the four of them and they lived in it till August 15,
1944. They went together through many dramatic moments. Germans
searched during nights. Neighbors, fearing a bloody repression, requested
that Lipman leave the house and even threatened to denounce him.
After the fall of the Warsaw Uprising he was dispatched as a Pole, with
false papers to Frankfurt, from where he escaped to Darmstadt. When
he was caught, he was sentenced to a penal camp. After the war he
returned to Poland and maintains heartfelt contacts with the Glowackis.
See: Grynberg, op. cit.
GLOWACKI-BLOCKI, Regina (not
related) see BLOCKI, Kazimiera, mother
GLOWACKI, Wladyslaw (1901-)
priest (not related)
From October 1940 till August
1942 he served as vicar in the Church of Our Lady in the territory of the
Warsaw ghetto on 34 Leszno Street. Many Jews benefited from his help:
to some of them he gave baptismal certificates, among them to Amelia and
Rudolf Areichowski, Alexander Bender, Maksymilian Seidenbeutel. In
August 1942 Father Wladyslaw was transferred to the parish at Sluzewiec,
but continued his contacts with the resistance movement on behalf of the
Jews. In his presbytery he harbored, from August 1942 till the end
of the occupation, Helena Labedz. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
see MARYNOWICZ-GLOWIAK, Z.
GLOD, Piotr's wife
GLUCHOWSKI, Marianna, wife
see ORZECHOWSKI-GLUS, J.
see URBANSKI,-GOCYLA -BARUT, J.
GODAWA, Anna, wife
GODAWA-CICHY (CICHA?) Janina,
GODAWA, Maria, daughter
The family received the medal
of "Righteous" from Yad Vashem on June 9, 1999 in Wroclaw, Poland, as announced
the Israeli Embassy in Poland.
GODLEWSKI, Maria (1907-1977)
Maria kept a grocer's shop
at Czarna Wies near Bialystok. Nina and Samuel Hupert, who fled the
Germans from Lodz came to that town. They stayed in the house of
Maria and Halina till the end of the war and then went to Israel.
In 1986 Helena was invited by the Huperts to Israel, where she received
the medal and planted the tree in the Alley of the "Righteous" at
Yad Vashem in Jerusalem. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
(not related) see BOGUCKI, Andrzej, husband
GODZIEK, Zofia, wife
GODZIEN, Ludwik (1880-1945)
GODZIEN, Bronislawa (1903-1949)
The Godzien family lived
at Wschodnica, near Boryslaw. From August 1943 till September 1944
they harbored in their only room and kitchen Dr. Juliusz Landau and his
sister Zofia, who were completely dependent on them, (according to the
doctor's statement). See: Grynberg, op. cit.
see SKOWRON, Roch & Jozefa, parents
GOEHRES, Julia, wife
GOEHRES, Irena, daughter
In February of 1942 in Jaslo
the family found a two years old girl lying in the snow. Edward got
"Aryan" documents for her. He, his wife and their two daughters,
Irena and Ewa took care of her with love and self-denial. In 1946
the girl's uncle, Mosze Montag retrieved her and a few years later they
went to Israel. The family recognized as "Righteous" in 1999, were
honored in Warsaw the 1st May of 2000, as announced the Israeli Embassy
GOGULKA, Eugenia, wife
GOGULKA, Lucja, daughter
GOLECKI, Ludwik (1912-)
Ludwik helped several Jewish
people from Parczewo, Bielskopodlaskie prov.
First he took care of the
couple Zyto with their 10 years old son Wiktor. Soon he himself had
to escape to Warsaw from the Gestapo. He worked there as Leon Ludwik
Golik. He provided the Jews with false documents and found shelter
for them. Wiktoria Lewkowicz came with her mother from Lvov and her
brother escaped from the ghetto in that city. Ludwik took care of
them, also teaching them proper behavior so as not to become suspect.
He also helped Benjamin Mandelkern, his wife Helena and Hanna Szechter.
All except Genia Zyto survived and left for Israel or France. See:
Grynberg, op. cit.
GOLKOWSKI, Czeslawa, wife
see BERCZYNSKI, Waclaw, husband
Prof. Julian Aleksandrowicz,
the famous hematologist from Cracow, names a certain Jan Golab as the "head
Doctor" and as one of many people of the underground in Cracow who tried
to save him, his wife, son and parents. They succeeded and the professor
became a physician in a partisan unit of the AK, under the alias "Doctor
Twardy". His diary was published as "Kartki z Dziennika Doktora Twardego".
Cracow, 1962 (2nd enlarged ed. 1967) See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, op.
cit. (excerpts from his diary: pp. 244-250)
GOLEMBIECKI, Anna, daughter
GOLEMBIECKI, Czeslaw, son
GOLEBICKI, Jozefa, wife
GOLEBIOWSKI, Helena, daughter
GOLEBIOWSKI, Jozef, son
GOLEBIOWSKI, Marian (1919-)
A lawyer born in Tarnopol,
during the war he stayed in Nowy Sacz. At the request of Irena Szumski
he took her with her fiancé and later husband, Dr. Juliusz Hellereich,
into his only room. Marian led them later to his colleague, Jan Ryndok
to Jaslo, presenting them as political refugees, Irena and Zbigniew Jakobiszyn.
Fearing denunciation, he went with them to the estate of Czermna, owned
by Mrs. Lobaczewski. All three stayed there till the end of the occupation.
Later Dr. Hellereich practiced medicine in western Pomerania. Ludwik
helped also other Jews. During two years he provided food and moral
encouragement to Teresa Huppert and her son Uri. Teresa and her son
wrote from Israel a glowing deposition on behalf of Ludwik for whose decoration
as "Righteous" by Yad Vashem in 1989 Dr. Hellereich came from Australia
with his daughter, now Ingram. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
GOLEBIOWSKI, Rozalia (not
GOLEBIOWSKI, Natalia, daughter
GOLOWACZ, Jadwiga, wife
GONCZAR, Maria, wife
GONDOROWICZ, Antonina Gabriela,
GORAJEK, Jozef (1908-) priest
As parish-priest at Wawolnica,
Lublin prov. and chaplain of the resistance movement, he procured baptismal
certificates for Jews. In particular, he took care of Danuta Winnik
at Niezabitow and of her small son Eugeniusz, whom he baptized and to whom
he taught the Catholic religion, thus deflecting suspicions of parishioners.
Danuta left for Argentina and died there in 1981. Eugeniusz came
from USA for a visit to Poland, found Father Gorajek and expressed their
gratitude. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
GORCZYCA-ZIEBA, Julia, daughter
GORCZYCA, Stanislaw, son
GORCZYCA, Michal (not related)
GORCZYCA, Zofia, wife
Michal and Zofia received
their medal as "Righteous" from Yad Vashem on June 9, 1999 in Wroclaw,
as announced the Israeli Embassy in Poland.
GORCZYK, Stanislaw (1910-1985)
Stanislaw lived at Skole,
Stryj district, near the Polish-Hungarian border. During the occupation
he used to travel to Zamosc, Lublin prov., to buy food in exchange for
garments. He met Antoni Dubel who asked him to conduct through the
border a Czech Jew, Hersz Ben, who had papers in the name of Michal Dobes.
In August 1942 Stanislaw,
with the couple Dobes, undertook the 500 Km. journey from Zamosc, through
Stryj and Lvov to Skole. The three went through many transfers and
searches by gendarmes during that trip, but arrived safely to Stanislaw's
house and stayed there for some time. One night they started to march
the 60 Km. trek towards the border through the Tatra Mountains and after
a few days reached Felszyn Hidek Potok, already in Hungary. Stanislaw
repeated the same journey still two more times with Stanislaw Lanys and
his wife from Czechoslovakia, and with Jozef Kalman, his wife and a 16
years old sister from Hungary. The couple Dobes went to Australia;
the fate of the others is unknown. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
GORTAT, Henryk 1915-1985)
Henryk lived with his mother
at Czerwinsk, Plock prov. In 1941 The Gliksman family escaped deportation
to the ghetto and hid in a sepulchre at the Czerwinsk cemetery. Unfortunately
they were found and shot. But before the execution they and their
neighbor, Leokadia Gortat, Henryk's mother, entreated the gendarme to spare
the two small children. The gendarme brought at night the 5 years
old Gliksman girl who remained with the Gortats the rest of the war.
In 1947 a representative of the Central Jewish Committee came for the child
who was placed in an orphanage in Otwock. An uncle living in France
soon reclaimed her. She lives there now. See: Grynberg, op.
cit. Leokadia is not recognized as"Righteous".
GOS, Stefania, wife
GOSK, Mieczyslaw (son? brother)
GOSK, Helena, Mieczyslaw's
GOSZKOWSKI, Maria, wife
GOZDEK-GREK, Jan (1929-)
Jan was active in the resistance
in the AK, and in the People's Army. Once, while bicycling through
a wood, he met two exhausted men who had escaped from transportation to
a camp and had wandered for four days without food and water. He
left them his coat and the food he had on him and promised to come later.
The next day he appeared with a horse cart and took them to a barn.
The refugees were Izaak Supel and Professor Abram Miodek, both from Warsaw.
Both survived. Jan was persecuted and even imprisoned by the Communists
in charge in Poland since 1945. Abram Miodek, after a lengthy quest,
wrote from the USA in 1974, a beautiful letter about Jan, asking anybody
who will see it to give him all possible assistance for what he did for
him and his friend Supel. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
GORECKI, Piotr (not related)
GORECKI, Agnieszka, wife
GORECKI, Wiktor (not related)
GORECKI, Anastazja, wife
GORECKI, Leokadia, daughter
GORECKI, Zofia, daughter
GORECKI, Zbigniew, physician
GORNIAK, Jozefa, wife
GORNIAK, Michal, son
GORNIAK, Tatiana, daughter
GORSKI, Marceli (not related)
GORSKI, Janina, wife
Abram Gilblum was the youngest
of six children of a restaurant owner in Warsaw. His father had also
a bottling plant in Otwock, near Warsaw. Abram studied in a private
school, where he was taught Hebrew and Polish. He was ten in 1939.
When the Germans came, at the beginning they were rather calm and came
to drink beer and make friends among the Poles. In Otwock there were
as many Jews as Poles. But when the SS came they started the killings.
Jews were not allowed to have any business activity. So Abram's father
found an honest Pole, Marceli Gorski, to whom he transferred the machinery,
the ownership, for which he paid him half of all profits. When the
ghetto was formed in Otwock, the Gilblums asked Marceli Gorski for shelter.
They all moved to the bunker, which they built with a neighbor, in the
cellar of the bottling plant, in which 40 Jews found refuge. The
gendarmes went from house to house as only half of Jews came out as ordered.
Gorski paid two Polish guides, who conducted them 20 km to Kolbiela, where
there was still no ghetto. One day the Germans organized there an
"Aktion" and gathered Jews to Treblinka. Abram caught with others,
escaped in the night from the confinement. Gorski found in Otwock
a relative to whom he paid 2,000 zlotys for each person, i.e. 16,000 zlotys for
the Gilblum family, for shelter and upkeep, beside paying them half of
profits from the bottling plant. When by chance they learned about
it, they told him to give them only one quarter from the profits.
So Marceli provided them with food himself. The shelter was 1,80
m by 3 m, full of cockroaches. To a neighbor who heard voices, Krup,
the house owner, explained that his home is haunted. So they stayed
there about a year. Then Krup requested from Marceli Gorski more
money, telling that he must build a new house. He transferred his
eight charges to a void building, unheated, where they almost froze.
The Gilblums decided to go to the ghetto. Marceli when informed of
that decision told them then they have to convince his wife. Janina
Gorska started to pray and told them: "If after all I did for you, you
want to die, this is your decision, but you must kill me before.
I hope that you have some pity on me". So they remained. Once
the police commander visited the Gorskis and told them: "I was at the transport
to Treblinka and the Gilblums were not there; I am sure that you abscond
them somewhere, but I will find them". So they remained there till
the coming of Russians in July of 1944, even longer because there roamed
still some bandits, from whom they escaped by the back door. All
the remaining Jews gathered in Lublin. Abram was in contact with
the Gorskis till his departure to Israel. There, in a kibutz, he
had no possibility to continue it and no money. After 1967 (the Six
days war) no correspondence was allowed. When Abram found Janina's
address, as Marceli was no more living, he asked an American-Israeli institution
to help her. She got from there $20, he added his $30 and
sent her parcels. She replied: "You have grandchildren, but
I am alone and I do not need anything". When the Gorskis were honored at
Yad Vashem as "Righteous" Janina was too ill with asthma to come.
Abram told at the end of
his story: I am happy. Maybe not because I met people who saved
my life, but because to meet a true human beings is happiness". See:
Isakiewicz, op. cit.
GORSKI, Maria, Sister, a
nun, not related to other Gorskis
GORSKI, Stanislaw (-1972)
GORSKI, Anna (1909-) wife
Stanislaw and his family
lived in Warsaw. In May 1943, when the Ghetto uprising came to its
end, Izaak Ajzenfus and his cousin escaped the burning ghetto and wandered
for seven days in Warsaw, looking for shelter, but people refused them
for fear of punishment. Upon learning from where they came, Stanislaw
proposed to shelter them in the cellar of a burnt-out house to which he
had a key, bringing them straw and blankets. Together they started
to earn their living by producing illicitly distilled liquor. Anna
bought the raw material and sold the alcohol. Stanislaw Gorski, caught
in a roundup, was sent to the Mauthausen concentration camp. All
survived. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
GRABDA, Witold, son
From July 1943, the Grabdas
sheltered on their farm at Rakowka, Kielce prov., two Jews aged 19 and
24, of whom one was Samuel Rozenfeld. Both went on to Israel. See:
Grynberg, op. cit.
GRABOWSKI, Wanda, wife
GRABOWSKI, Henryk (1913-)
engineer (not related)
GRABOWSKI, Irena, (1915-)
Henryk belonged to the scouting
organization, which already before the war had contacts with Haszomer Hacair,
a Jewish youth movement, part of the Jewish Fighting Organization.
Towards the end of 1941 some members of the two movements met in Warsaw
and decided to go to the different ghettos, verify their situation and
build communications among them. At that meeting were present Mordechaj
Anielewicz, Icchak Cukierman, Josef Kaplan, Cywia Lubetkin and from the
Polish side Irena Adamowicz (q.v.) and Stanislaw Hajduk, besides Henryk.
The latter went to the ghettos in Bialystok, Grodno and Vilna. Here
he met Arie Wilner, alias "Jurek". The activists of Jewish resistance:
Chaju Grosman, Arie, Edek Boraks and others met often in the Grabowskis'
flat. Here arms for the ghetto were hidden. Arie, who was the
representative of the resistance in the Warsaw ghetto was arrested, tortured
on Aleja Szucha (Gestapo headquarters), and sent to a forced labor camp
in Warsaw. Henryk succeeded to extricate him from there and bring
him barely alive to his apartment. Thanks to the care of Irena Grabowski,
Arie recovered and returned to the ghetto. See: Grynberg, op.
GRABOWSKI, Jan (not related)
GRABOWSKI, Maria, wife
GRABOWSKI, Kazimierz, son
GRABOWSKI, Stanislaw, son
(not related) see STOLARSKI, Balbina, mother
GRABOWSKI, Stefan (not related)
GRABOWSKI, Anna, wife
GRABOWSKI, Teresa (not related)
While in secondary school,
before the war, Aleksandra befriended Alina Gradus. At the beginning
of 1943 Aleksandra organized a Kennkarte for Alina and her sister Irena,
got them out of the Warsaw ghetto and brought both sisters to Wiazowna,
near Warsaw, where her mother lived. Both sisters found work there
and survived. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
GRAFA (GRAFFA?) Janina
see LEWARTOWSKI-GRAMATYKA, M.
GREK-GOZDEK, Jan see GOZDEK-GREK,
see SZEPELOWSKI, Wladyslaw. & Stanislawa., parents?
GRENDA, Ligoria, Sister
see Ligoria, Sister
GROBELNY, Julian, alias TROJAN
GROBELNY, Halina (1900-)
Julian Grobelny took part
in the Silesia Uprisings and was a member of the Polish Socialist Party,
and an activist before the war among the workers in Lodz . As representative
of that party, he joined Zegota (Council for Aid to Jews) and from its
inception was elected its head. The couple was famous for their preoccupation
with saving particularly Jewish children, in close co-operation with Irena
Sendler (q.v.). In their very modest home at Ceglowo, near Warsaw, they
offered shelter to whoever needed it most, children and adults. See:
Grynberg, op. cit., Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit.,Wronski & Zwolakowa,
op. cit., Smolski, and Prekerowa, op. cit.
GROCHOLSKI, Olga, wife
GROCHOLSKI, Stanislaw (not
GROCHOLSKI, Anna, wife
One Stanislaw Grocholski
is mentioned as a surgeon who with Feliks Kanabus and Andrzej Trojanowski
was among 15 such doctors who performed the operation for removing the
traces of circumcision. Some of them made also nose and ears operations
to hide the most prominent Semitic features. See: Prekerowa, op.
Stanislawa see SIERZPUTOWSKI-GRODZICKI, S.
GRONEK, Alina see KACZMAREK,
Wanda see MARINGE-GROSTAL K.W.
GRUCHACZ, Tadeusz (does not
appear on the Yad Vashem 1999 list, but did before)
GRUDZINSKI, Hanna Jozefa,
GRUDZINSKI, Wojciech, son
GRUM, Katarzyna, wife
see KULWIEC-GRUNDGANG, J.
GRUSZCZAK, Tadeusz, physician
GRUSZEWSKI, Jozefina, wife
see ZAWADZKI-GRYCEWICZ, Z.
GRYCZKIEWICZ, Maria Krystyna,
GRYCZKIEWICZ, Anna Maria,
see KWIETNIEWSKI, Andrzej & Wiktoria, parents?
see CIESIELSKI, Helena, mother
GRZEBYK, Maria, wife
daughter? see WOLOSZYNIAK, Stanislaw, husband
GRZEGORCZYK, Olga, wife
GRZELAK, Bronislawa, wife
GRZESIAK, Lucja, wife
Henryk and Lucja lived in
Lvov. They could see from their window the Jews gathered for deportation
to Treblinka. They pulled out of that group a young boy, Natan Neuman,
whom they kept for several weeks. Then Henryk brought him to a group
of partisans hiding in the nearby forest. Recognized as "Righteous"
in 1998, they were honored on Dec. 15, 1999 in Warsaw, according to the
announcement of the Israeli Embassy in Poland.
GRZESIAK, Tadeusz (not related)
GRZYB-NOWICKI, Tekla see
NOWICKI, Mieczyslaw, husband
GRZYBOWSKI, Jerzy (1926-)
Jerzy was a worker in Bedzin.
In November 1942 a 6 years old boy, Klajnman, came to his apartment and
remained there till the end of the occupation, until his uncle reclaimed
him in January 1945 and went with him abroad. Jerzy came to know
Samuel Montag in a forced labor camp at Blachownia Slaska. He obtained
shelter for him with a Montag family (not his relative) when both escaped
the camp. Samuel left for Germany. He maintains contacts with
Jerzy. See: Grynberg, op. cit
GRZYBOWSKI, Ludwika (not
GRZYBOWSKI, Stanislawa (not
GRZYBOWSKI, Jerzy, son
GRZYBOWSKI, Maria, daughter
GRZYBOWSKI, Roman, son
GRZYBOWSKI, Wladyslaw (not
GRZYBOWSKI, Irena, wife
GUMULKA-BRON, Irena see
BRON, Zygmunt, Wanda & Alina
GUT, Feliks, son
GUT, Jan, son
GUT OP DYKE, Irena
Irena helped Jewish workers
of a laundry for German officers in Tarnopol (now in Ukraine). She
took such good care of the German major, responsible for the laundry, that
he granted her special passes with which Jewish workers could leave the
ghetto and spend several days in the laundry. One day the major returned
home earlier than usual. What was his amazement and indignation when
he discovered nine Jews in his apartment: they did not have time to run
to the cellar. But Irena implored him to have pity on them all.
She even managed to have him add some conveniences to the cellar in which
they normally hid. When the Gestapo came to investigate, Irena did
not allow them to search the house, under the pretext, that it is the private
home of a major of the German army and that the Gestapo should rather call
on him in his office. In the meantime, the situation of Germans on
the front worsened and Irena was ordered to move west with the Germans.
Instead she escaped with her Jews and hid in a forest. Having to
part with them, she provided for their care by another woman. Advancing
Russians liberated them on March 24, 1944. Irena managed to escape
to Kielce and to join partisans. All survived. Irena moved
to the United States, married and spoke publicly on the Holocaust.
See: Paldiel, op. cit.
GUTOWSKI, Leonia (1900-1956)
GUTOWSKI-LESISZ, Wanda (1925-)
The Gutowski family resided
in their own villa in Warsaw. Leonia's husband, a career officer,
was taken prisoner to Soviet Russia and was shot in 1940 as one among the
ca. 22.000 Polish officers executed at Katyn and other places. She
was a teacher. An acquaintance brought over to the Gutowskis the
Teicher couple and their 6-7 years old son, Henryk. The Teichers
left after a few days, as Leonia and both of her daughters were very active
in the underground and harbored already an English parachutist. But
the acquaintance did not return for the boy: she was arrested with the
Teichers. A few moths later Irena, a Jewish young woman, came to
their villa - she also had to change her previous hiding place. She
remained with them till the Warsaw Uprising (1944). After the war
she married a Polish officer, who was a POW in Germany, Palenker, and they
went to Israel. The Gutowskis searched at the Jewish Committee for
some relatives of Henryk. They found that he had an uncle Sztorch
in the USA and an aunt Halpern. This latter took Henryk with her
to Israel. It was difficult to persuade the boy to leave the Gutowskis.
Janina, the elder daughter, was invited twice to Israel by Henryk Teicher
and planted a tree for the three of them. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
and Lukas: Out of the Inferno, op. cit.
see GUDZAK-GUTWINSKI, K.
GUZEK, Zuzanna, wife
GUZEK, Eugeniusz, son
GUZDZ-KIELOCH, Helena see
KIELOCH, Jadwiga, mother
see MATUSZAK, Katarzyna, mother
see ADAMCZYK-GWIAZDOWSKI, J.
GWIZDAK, Katarzyna, wife
GWIZDAK, Tadeusz, son
GWOZDOWICZ, Matylda (1888-1964)
GWOZDOWICZ, Irena (1923-)
The Gwozdowicz family lived
at Bursztyn (Stanislawow prov.). The father, a judge, had died before
the war. Irena befriended in school Lusia Rozen. The widow
and the two daughters moved to Przemysl. When Ukrainians and Germans
started the killings of Jews, Matylda offered to help her in case she needed
it. Lusia got a birth certificate of a girl deported to Germany,
from a Greek Catholic priest and went on to Przemysl as Jozefa Balda.
As such she did not have to hide and even got work in a German army kitchen,
as the daughter of a woman taken to Siberia. She remained with the
Gwozdowicz family till the end of the war. After the war she married
Leon Freifeld and left with him for Israel. Lusia invited Irena to
Israel in 1963 and in 1987 petitioned Yad Vashem for the recognition of
the three Gwozdowicz women. The ceremony took place a year later.
See: Grynberg, op. cit.