CABAJ, Tatiana, wife
CABAJ, Antonina, daughter
CABAJ, Janina, daughter
Aleksandra had a small farm
at the outskirts of Krzemieniec (now in Ukraine). At the end of 1942
some Jews managed to escape from the ghetto and came to her. First
came Jan Kot, then Tola Kaplan and Zofia Kahan, then Czacki and Alpinski
and two more persons, together seven (7) people. At the beginning
they all lived in one room with a window on the garden. Then Aleksandra
and her guests dug a hole under the room; it had an exit to the kitchen
and another one was disguised as a hole for garbage. All survived.
See: Grynberg, op. cit.
CALKA, Szymon & Helena
see CELKA, S.& H.
CAPF, Halina, wife
CAR, Maria, wife
CAR, Stanislaw, son
CARELUS, (Karelus) Jadwiga
see ZBIK-KARELUS, J.
Under the alias of "Ewa"
she was in a group of persons in Cracow who helped the members of ZOB (Jewish
Fighting Otganization) who managed to come there after the fall of the
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit
CELEY, Felicja, wife
CELEY, Tatiana, daughter
CELKA, Helena, wife
Josef Czarny escaped from
Treblinka during the revolt there in August 1943. He wandered a month
until he found Szymon, who received him warmly, as he was helping already
other Jews. He cared for him several weeks. Josef called him
an angel. He survived. See: Paldiel, op. cit.
CERNY, Alicja see SEIPP,
CEKALSKI, Zbigniew , son
CELUCH, Justyna, wife
CHABER, Stanislaw, son
CHABER, Maria, Stanislaw's
CHAJEC, Magdalena, wife
CHAREZINSKI, Apolonia, wife
CHARLAMOW, Mikolaj, (1911-)
He came to Luck (now in Ukraine)
in September 1939 where, joining the underground, he provided Kennkarten
to, among others, Mieczyslaw Zammenhoff, Szaja
Kobylinski, Bronislaw Frenkel, a physician, Leon Schaff, Melich Fajerstein,
Sara Pojas and her husband. Some of them he extricated out of the
ghetto, others he transported to Warsaw, or put in contact with partisans.
Almost all helped by him survived and emigrated to Israel. See: Grynberg,
Pawel, as a farmer at Lososna,
near Grodno, (now in Belorussia) defended in 1941 a Jewish family, whom
some Belo Russians probably wanted to hand over to Germans persuading them
that it would be against principles of religion and morality. From
November 1942 to April 1943 he transported 19 Jews from Grodno to Warsaw,
as they wanted to escape the Soviet Zone. Among them were: the lawyer
Berg, the engineer Fajerstein, Jakub Liwszyc with his wife Halina, the
engineer Jerzy Lachert with his wife and baby. In Warsaw he
provided them with false documents and found them safe haven. Almost
all helped by him survived and left for Israel. See: Grynberg, op.
cit. and Kaluski, op. cit.
CHARUK, Rozalia, wife
CHAWINSKI, Jan (1904-1980)
CHAWINSKI, Bogumila (1913-)
The Chawinski couple lived
in Sosnowiec. They knew before the war Danuta Szwarcbaum-Bachmajer,
who in the ghetto gave birth to a girl, Lucyna. Danuta asked Bogummila
to take out the baby, what she did and even succeeded to adopt it.
The childless couple became very attached to the girl. During the
liquidation of the Sosnowiec Ghetto, Danuta managed to escape and to come
to the Chawinskis and stayed with them a certain time. They procured
her faked papers and dispatched her to some friends in the General Government
area. In 1945 Danuta returned for her girl, now 5 years old, and
left with her for Australia. The separation from the adoptive parents
was extremely painful for both sides. In 1979 Lucyna with her husband
visited the Chawinskis. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
Edward worked in the Warsaw
Record Office. That office, with the approval of the delegate of
the Polish Government in Exile in London, distributed numerous forged documents,
including "Kennkarten", based on baptismal and marriage certificates obtained
from many cooperating priests, always gratuitously as well for Jews as
for Poles. So obtained their documents: Zdzislaw Goldberg, who got
them for himself, his eleven (11) members family and for many friends,
Maciej Daniel, Bronka Feinstein, Marcel Metelman, Halina Petersburski,
Rafal Praga, Jola Tuwim, Felicja Stern with her 6 years old son, Jerzy
Rynecki, Maria Checiner, Dr. Marek Marski. Edward gave his help to
all that needed it even to people he never saw. Some people he placed
with relatives. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
CHEC, Karolina, wife
CHEC, Marianna daughter
CHEMIEL, Aniela see CHMIEL,
CHECINSKI, Slawomir Juliusz
CHIR, Joanna, wife
CHIR, Michal, son, (Marian's
CHLIPALSKI, Eugenia, wife
CHMIELENSKI, Maria, wife
CHMIELENSKI, Irena, daughter,
The family saved Janina Neuding,
her daughter and mother-in-law. They received their medal in Warsaw,
on Jan 14. 1999, according to the announcement of the Israeli Embassy in
CHMIELEWSKI, Michalina (not
CHMIELEWSKI, Stanislaw (1909-1992)
Stanislaw from Warsaw had
before the war many Jewish friends, one of whom was Wladyslaw Bergman.
When he met him in Lublin they promised each other that the one, who will
survive the war, will take care of the mother of the other. From Vilna,
where he found himself in October 1939, he brought many letters from the
Jews staying there to their families in Warsaw, e.g. for Pawel Hertz and
Mieczyslaw Zamenhof. Minding the commandment of love he put it in
practice in many ways: he tossed food and medicines into the ghetto, smuggled
people out of it, procured them false documents and hid himself 24 of them.
Among others he took care of the family of Janina Bauman, who had to change
many times its shelter. He found them and accompanied each of them
to personally. See: Grynberg, op.cit.
CHMIELEWSKI, Zenon (1895-)
barrister (not related)
CHMIELEWSKI, Barbara (1908-)
The Chmielewski couple lived
before the war in Dabrowa Gornicza (Silesia). When Germans occupied
the town in 1939, they fled to Warsaw. In the ghetto was an acquaintance
of Zenon from Dabrowa, Jakub Rechnic, who asked for help on the turn of
1941-1942. Zenon took care of him till the end of the war.
Jakub invited him to Israel in 1961, as a proof of his gratitude for saving
his life. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
CHMURA, Wanda, daughter
Maria Perlberger lived in
Wieliczka, near Cracow as the only child of parents with university education
and assimilated to the Polish culture. In 1939 she was 7 years old.
When Germans forbid schooling of Jewish children, they took clandestine
courses, like many Polish children, for what the Germans decided the death
penalty. Soon the family received other relatives from Cracow, where
there was already a ghetto. In 1942 the Germans started massive killing
of Jews. Maria's mother begged her to go to live with a Mrs. Duszczynski,
mother of one of her colleagues. She did but feeling all alone she
escaped the next day by the window, but eventually returned to her.
Mrs. Duszczynski's mother took her to Cracow and put up with another nice
lady telling her a fictitious story about the child.
Mrs. Duszczynski got for
her a false baptismal certificate as Nowakowski. A doctor, friend
of her father, who received from him all their valuables and was supposed
to take her in, changed his mind, and told that he will release the girl
to the Germans. Mrs. Duszczynski made him a terrible scene and he
partly capitulated, promising that if they would find a place for her in
Warsaw, he would pay for her upkeep. So Mrs. Duszczynski brought
Maria by train to Warsaw and placed her with a Polish woman, who though
was indelicate to her. Several people recognized in her a Jewish
girl and they were all afraid. After a few weeks came another Polish
lady, nice this time, and took her with her to Kolo (now Boernerowo, a
pleasant suburb of Warsaw). She was Irena Chmura, whose husband was
a POW. She wisely deflected inquiries from neighbors. Maria
heard about the underground and wished that she too could fight for Poland.
Irena Chmura took care also of an older distinguished lady, evidently Jewish,
who liked Maria's company. When she died, she was buried in the Catholic
cemetery, to avoid suspicion. During the Ghetto Uprising in 1943
the Polish underground press spoke about the Jews with highest esteem,
but there were still some people who circulated funny stories about Jews,
when at the same time news about Poles killed for harboring Jews were ubiquitous.
In the fall of 1943 Mrs. Chmura put Maria in a Polish school, where she
was well received and later in the Polish scout movement, in which she
was with Irena's daughter, Wanda, seven years older than herself.
So Maria took part in the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. After its fall
their neighbors, the Czechowskis invited Irena Chmura with Maria to stay
on their lot. In October Wanda Chmura who was lost during the Uprising,
found them. The Chmuras decided to go to their relatives to the Western
part of Poland, incorporated into Germany. They could not take her
with them so thy brought her to Cracow and gave her a note with an address
on it. After a close escape from a Ukrainian, Maria went to the address
given her. It was the address of Mrs. Kunicki, wife of that doctor
who paid for her. She lamented what to do with her and placed her
with other people; the last place being with a bigoted woman, prejudiced
about Jews. When Russians entered, in January 1945 a couple from
Lodz supposedly wanted to adopt her but she understood that they wanted
rather to have a maid. So she escaped from them also and returned
to Warsaw, where a neighbor, Mrs. Kaminski, who knew that she is Jewish,
offered her to stay with her. Maria found a convent of Grey nuns
near Piaseczno, where however reigned a terrible poverty. Wanda Chmura
found for her a lay school, where the conditions were better, as this was
a home for children of the militaries. This home moved to Silesia.
There she got a postcard from her grandfather's sister, named Schenker.
Maria went to Cracow to meet her, bur she was just leaving Poland.
Maria returned to that home, always negating that she was Jewish.
An uncle of her brought her to Belgium, but after two months put her into
a children's home and then without her knowledge signed his accord for
her being sent to Israel. Maria was very disappointed, a she felt
to be sent against her will, although she stayed in Israel with her uncle's
family for a certain time, where she also felt unhappy. Now she is
married with children and grandchildren. Only in 1990 she was able
to visit Poland. Both mothers, Irena Chmura and Zofia Duszczynski
were dead at that time, but Maria was always in contact with Wanda Chmura,
who visited her twice. Both Chmuras were recognized as "Righteous"
in 1976 in a moving ceremony in Jerusalem. From Wanda Chmura she
learned that it was Zegota, which was instrumental in her saving and that
Zofia Kossak-Szczucki arranged the saving of a cousin of her. Maria
found Wanda Duszczynski only in 1997 and the same year brought the recognition
of her deceased mother, Zofia. Before all that, in 1985 she got a
letter from the USA, in which she found her parents' letter begging their
cousins, Alexander and Oskar Schenkers, to take care of Maria in the case
that they would not survive. And so their love for her found her
after so many years. See: Isakiewicz, op. cit.
CHODON-GERTNER, Maria see
CHODOROWSKI, Zofia, wife
CHODOR, Stefania, wife
CHODOR, Stanislawa, daughter
see WALCZAK-CHOINSKI, L.
CHOLEWA, Wladyslaw, brother
CHOLEWA, Tadeusz (1908-1988)
Tadeusz lived in Wieliczka
near Cracow. From 1941, with the help of his sisters, he hid Sala and Ezjasz
Schnur and Sala's brother Jan Wasserberger. Sala gave birth to a
baby, which endangered all of them even more. Tadeusz placed the
infant in an orphanage and accompanied the couple to Cracow. Other
people helped them to go to Warsaw. All three with the baby left for Australia.
See: Grynberg, op. cit.
CHOLEWICKI, Maria, wife
CHOLEWICKI, Malgorzata (not
related) see STOBINSKI, Nina, mother
CHOMA, Weronika, wife
CHOMS, Wladyslawa Laryssa,
alias "Dionizy" (1891-1966)
With her husband, a carrier
officer, she lived in Drohobycz, where she headed the Social Welfare Dept.
She was elected head of the Democratic Party and protested against ghetto
benches in local schools. They moved to Lvov in 1938. She entered
the resistance and was very active in defending Jews, becoming the head
of the Council for Aid to Jews in Lvov. With a group of idealists
she extricated from the ghetto scores of Jews, procured them false documents,
found them places of refuge and when necessary medical attention.
Many had to cross to the "Aryan" side through the sewers, including children.
Sacks of bread were brought to the ghetto. Jewish mothers put their
children in these sacks or in garbage carts to be transported to the other
side, where they were placed with 60 Polish families or in convents and
orphanages. The "Angel of Lvov", as she was called, wrote the first
report about the tragic situation of the Jews in that city, appealing for
urgent help, which reached London and the USA. Two of her women cooperators
were caught, tortured and killed. In 1943 she was ordered by the
underground to go to Warsaw, where she continued her activities.
Her husband, being a POW in Germany, died soon after the "liberation";
their only son was killed serving in the RAF. In London, where she
went after the war, reached her an invitation from Israel authorities.
She went there and much honored, died in 1966. See: Grynberg, op.
cit., Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit. and especially: Bauminger, Arieh
L.: The Righteous among the Nations, op. cit.
CHRASCIKOWSKI, Halina, daughter
CHROBOT, Stanislaw, son
see JABLONSKI, Wincenty & K. parents
CHROSZTEK, Rozalia, wife
CHRUSZCZ, Maria, wife
These farmers lived with
two children at Las Kamionka, county Salat, Tarnopol prov. When Germans
liquidated the Salat ghetto in June 1943, Rudolf Zerkower, his wife and
Hinda Kaczor found safe heaven with the Chruszcz couple, which built for
them a second ceiling in one of the rooms. Thus between the two ceilings
the fugitives lived 9 months and after the war went to Israel. The
couple found the necessary strength in their very vivid Catholic faith.
See: Grynberg, op. cit.
CHUCHERKO, Stefan (1900-1970)
CHUCHERKO, Zofia (1897-1978)
CHUCHERKO, Eugeniusz (1924-)
CHUCHERKO, Henryk (1927-)
CHUCHERKO, Lepold, son
The family rented a one-hectare
farm at Nowa Gora, Cracow prov. They hid five (5) Jews: Bernard Feiler
with his wife Bela, Henryk Feiler with wife Sala and her brother Icchak
Grosman. When the fugitives did not have any more money, the family
shared with them whatever they had themselves. One of the women bore
a child, which after a few weeks was taken to a childless couple Noworyt
at Miekinia. Icchak died in December 1944. They buried him
under the floor of the pantry and after the war they transferred the body
to the Jewish cemetery in Trzebinia. The Feiler child returned to
its parents who left with it for Australia. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
CHYLINSKI, Zofia see HENNIUS-KOWALEWSKI,
Wieslawa see KROLIKIEWCZ, W. & H.
CICHY (CICHA?) Janina see
GODAWA, Andrzej & Anna, parents
CICHON, Jozefa, wife
Still before the war she
befriended Lidia Gutmer. During the war Danuta tried to keep up the
spirit of her friend and when this escaped from the ghetto she rented a
room and they both moved into it. When it was urgent to leave Warsaw,
both went to Mielec and stayed there to the end of the war. Danuta
was honored in Warsaw on Jan 14, 1999, as announced the Israeli Embassy
CIELECKI, Maria, wife
With their son Witold they
sheltered Miriam Koryski and her mother. Both survived. See:
Grynberg, op. cit.
Jan was a peasant steward
in the manor of the Konopkas' at Opatkowice, near Proszowice, Cracow prov.
A Jewish family of five (5), Israel Goldstein, his wife, two children and
grandmother Meisels asked him for shelter. He put them up in the
manorial barn to which he had access with a forged key. At night
he brought them to his house for a warm meal and provisions for the next
day. After a few weeks some burglars tried to enter the barn for
the poppy seed. The Jews panicked and betrayed their hiding place.
The field overseer drove them out. They were arrested, with the exception
of the youngest son, 14 years old, who managed to return to Jan.
The Civil Struggle Directorate provided him with forged documents and a
job at a mill. Every Sunday he smuggled bread to his family in the
ghetto, until they were dispatched to the crematorium. The other
son, Majer arrested and severely beaten, told the torturer that he buried
gold and dollars and offered them to show the place. Brought to that
place and given a shovel to dig up the treasure, he gave a big blow to
the German's head and escaped to Jan. This put him up with his father-in-law,
Malek, at Rzedowice. Malek hid the boy in his garret and soon accepted
two other Jews, Jozef and Jasia Wachselbaum. Tadeusz Seweryn, (q.v.)
alias "Socha" told that each time he was in great danger in Cracow, he
went there to hide with Malek, his daughter Aniela and Jan Cieply.
Malek told him: "If I am to be hanged for one Jew, better they hang me
for three". See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit.
CIESIELSKI, Romualda, wife
The Ciesielskis were driven
from Bydgoszcz (incorporated in 1939 into the 3rd Reich) into the General
Government, to Cracow. Romualda, a social worker started to help
Jews, smuggling them out of the ghetto, providing them with forged documents,
hiding them in her apartment. She was arrested in 1942 with her 9
years old son and sent to Auschwitz. Here in 1943 she was put in
charge of 500 Polish and Jewish children between 4 and 15 years old from
Warsaw and the Zamosc area. Thanks to her efforts many Jewish and
Polish children were saved. Feliks was killed in March 1945.
See: Grynberg, op. cit.
Halina was the head of a
preparatory school in Warsaw and in 1940 she married a Jewish student Jan
Grynblatt. When her husband was forced into the ghetto, Halina went
with him, but illegally visited often her mother on the "Aryan" side, bringing
food to the ghetto. Jan was sent to the forced labor camp at Kaweczyn.
Halina bribed the Ukrainian guards, got him out and organized for him faked
documents. The Germans occupied part of the house to which the three
moved. In moments of danger Jan hid in the wardrobe. All survived.
See: Grynberg, op. cit.
CIESLA, Anna, wife
CIESLAK, Zofia, wife
Waleria, seconded by her
brother, helped many Jews, in spite of her husband's deportation to Auschwitz.
She harbored from the fall of 1943 till October of 1944 Tamchum Kupferblum,
alias Stanislaw Kornacki, his wife Mala, both from Sandomierz and her boss,
Dr. Backman with his son Jurek. In his testimony Tanchum Kupferblum
(vel Stanislaw) writes that after many disastrous encounters with blackmailers,
Blue and "Krippo" police, he felt finally safe. Gen. Kaminski provided
Stanislaw, his family and 20 other Sandomierz Jews with a monthly stipend
with money coming from Zegota, what Stanislaw did not know at that time.
Tamchum's brother, Abram Kupferblum passed to him the monthly stipend of
1,000, later of 2,000 zlotys. Every recipient of this money signed
a receipt with his faked name of the time. Tamchum vel Stanislaw
tells also how Waleria concealed for two weeks 20 very rich Jews from Lodz.
She did not ask them for any exorbitant sum for their upkeep. When
they left that shelter, they were shot.
In a separate statement
to Yad Vashem Tanchum Kupferblum (signed in the Israeli Consulate in the
presence of this researcher) that described how in 1945 he met two elegant
Cracow Jews who told him that they were saved by the renowned priest, Stanislaw
Trzeciak, considered to be anti-Semitic. The two men told Stanislaw
that the priest appealed to Poles to patronize rather Polish than Jewish
shops. He wanted to show them that he did it not out of his anti-Semitism
but for the survival of the Polish merchants. Yad Vashem recognized
Waleria and Jan in 1955. The letter is dated Jan 1, 1996. Case
No. 6660 was started in 1994. The priest, Stanislaw Trzeciak is not
CIESLICKI, Stefania, wife
see KIELOCH, Jadwiga, mother ?
CIOK, Maria, wife
CIOK, Zdzislaw, son
CIOK, Jan (not
CIOLEK, Helena Zofia, daughter
CIOSMAK-BUSZKO, Anna (1908-)
Anna was a farmer at Siedliska,
(Wolhynia prov. incorporated after the war into the Soviet Ukraine).
She rented her orchard to a Jew named Szeren, from nearby Korytnica.
The Szeren couple was killed, but the children, 14 years old Ryfka and
16 years old Jankiel fled over to Anna. She made a shelter for them
and sometimes took them into her house. After the war Ryfka went
to the USA and Jankiel to Israel. They maintain correspondence with
Anna. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
CISZEWSKI, Ryszard, son
CISZEWSKI, Zdzislaw, son
CIUKSZA, Aleksandra, wife
CODOGNI, Karol, son (1916-)
The Codognis resided at Brzezany.
During the final liquidation of the Jewish community there in June 1943,
Fiszel Bomze asked his acquaintances, the Codognis, for shelter.
With him came his daughter, Chana Redlich with her husband Wewe and their
eight years old son Szymon and a daughter of Fiszel, Malka. Stanislaw
had a forge, visited frequently by clients. The Codognis could not
keep the Jews themselves and so placed them with some friends at the nearby
village of Raj, but provided them with food. The Bomze parents remained
in the ghetto and were shot. Zula Helman, 20 years old daughter of
an attorney from Brzezany, who was later killed, also benefited from the
help of the Codognis. Karol got for her a baptismal certificate from
the priest Adam Lancucki and took her to an acquaintance of his in Lvov.
All the young people survived and live in Israel, where Szymon is a university
professor in Beer-Sheva. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
see ECHBERGER- CUKROWICZ, R.
CYGAN, Janina, wife
CYGAN, Edward, son?
CYWINSKI, Feliks (1902-1985)
In 1965, the World Council
of Jews gave a reception in Tel-Aviv in honor of Feliks Cywinski.
He was one of the first to be recognized as "Righteous Among Nations",
as his courage, determination and humanity were unparalleled. He
was an engineer and before the war, a career officer in the Air Force,
married with two children: a 13 years old girl and a 12 years old boy.
When a friend, Jan Bochenski (Buchanski?) asked him in 1942 to help two
Jewish women staying in the camp at Chyzyny, he went there to take their
photographs for the "Kennkarten", extricated them from there and put them
up in his house in Warsaw. He did the same for their relatives, Urszula
Rubinstein, her parents, brother, sister and brother-in-law. He brought
bricks in his briefcase to build a shelter for the seven people and lugged
on his back sacks of coal and food. Jadzia Bursztyn, 12 years old,
the four Kenigsweins, the couple Szac with their son and the couple Rybak
were among those he sheltered. When there was no more money he sold
his house, borrowed money and went into debt. His helper, Jan Bochenski,
(Buchanski?) who started all this, sold also his 5 hectare lot to have
money for the necessities of all those sheltered in apartments rented or
bought. Some refugees had to change their place of abode up to 12
times a year. When one of his charges came down with typhoid fever,
he brought him the doctor Jan Mockallo, medicines and injections "from
under the ground" and even provided separate pots and dishes for those
who were strictly orthodox. Feliks saved 23 Jews but helped even
more, as not all survived the war. Extortionists harassed him.
One night at 10 o'clock he was sleeping in the kitchen when Germans appeared.
Feliks treated them to vodka; fortunately sirens sounded for an air raid.
The Germans were so afraid that for the duration of the alarm, of two hours
and a half, they drank vodka and omitted searching the house. Another
time one of the women, sheltered by him, Regina Kenigswein, started to
have labor pains. The other women were helpless. They, like
the men being sheltered, were terrified that the crying of the baby would
endanger them all. So the engineer had to act as midwife and received
the baby literally in his hands, calling this the happiest moment of his
life. Other persons, who cooperated with him, were his parents and
sisters residing at Brwinow, near Warsaw, the porter Michalak and Antoni
Polny, owner of an upholstery shop, who closed it for a certain time, supposedly
for renovations, to accommodate Feliks's guests. When the Warsaw
Uprising broke out on August 1, 1944, Feliks led out several of the Jews
he had saved to take part in the fighting. They joined a group of
348 Jews of various nationalities, liberated from the Warsaw concentration
camp "Gesiowka" on August 5, 1944. The liberators were the Scout
Commando Battalion "Zoska", under the command of capt. Waclaw Micuta, an
AK unit with two tanks captured from the Germans. Feliks extolled
their discipline and bravery. See: The article by Joffe, Henryk,
in the Polish "Izraelskie Nowiny i Kurier" in Tel Aviv; and also:
Bartoszewski, op. cit.
Grynberg In his account
about Cywinski, writes that in 1982 Feliks told him in great secret that
in 1939, as a prisoner of war of the Soviets, he was taken to Katyn.
He succeeded (one of the very few) to escape from it and return to Poland
and so avoided the fate of the ca. 22.000 Polish officers killed there
and in other places in Soviet Russia in April-May of 1940. His parents
and sisters do not seem to be recognized.
CZAJEWSKI, Franciszka see
CZAJKA, Tekla see NOWICKI-EISEN,
CZAJKOWSKI, Helena, wife
CZAJKOWSKI, Szymon (1879-1962
CZAJKOWSKI, Andrzej (1905-1990)
CZAJKOWSKI, Walerian, grandson
The Czajkowskis lived at
Zrecin, county of Krosno. In the summer of 1942 some Jews managed
to escape the ghetto and camp in Krosno to the home of Szymon and Bronislawa:
the four Lipiners, Chaskiel Morgenstern, Jozef Brajtowicz, Rubin, Maks
and Roman Bergmans. The Czajkowskis made a shelter in their cowshed,
from which the persons sheltered could go out only at night to get some
fresh air. Particularly difficult was the problem of providing food
for nine (9) people, which had to be brought from distant localities.
After two years all were alive and free. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
CZAPLAN, Marianna, wife
CZARKOWSKI, Jozef, Aniela's
see PIOTROWSKI, Kazimierz & Waleria, parents
CZARNECKI, Wladyslaw (not
CZARNECKI, Zofia, wife
CZARNECKI, Antoni, son
CZARNECKI, Danuta, daughter
CZARNECKI, Jozef, son
CZARNECKI, Zenon, son
CZARNOWSKI, Krystyna see
OSTROWSKI, Nina, mother
CZARTORYSKI, princess, Helena
CZECHONSKI, Emilia, wife
CZEPIELUK, Maria, wife
CZEPIELUK, Katarzyna, daughter
CZEREWANIOW, Jan (1911-)
The couple lived in Dubno
(town incorporated after the war into the Soviet Ukraine) They adopted
the six months old daughter of their acquaintances, the Goldszteins, when
these were forced into the ghetto. At the end of 1942 Ukrainian police
arrested Katarzyna for hiding a Jewish child. She explained that
this is a child of a paramour of her husband, who abandoned her daughter.
The couple avoided the deportation to the camp in Przemysl in 1943 and
remained there till the end of the occupation with the adopted girl.
See: Grynberg, op. cit.
CZERNIAKOWSKI, Zofia, a
physician, his wife
Zofia had befriended the
Skotnickis, of Jewish extraction, parents of Anna, Alexander and Renata,
now Zajdman. Renata was the darling of her illiterate Catholic nanny,
Janka. She was also a close friend of Leszka (Lechoslawa).
After the September 1939 campaign, Aleksander and Renata went to Bialystok,
because their mother considered it more secure. When she died of
typhoid fever, Aleksander returned to Warsaw to be with Anna, leaving Renata
at the boarding school there, where she befriended a classmate, Irena Podbielski.
In 1940 Aleksander and Anna were forced into the Warsaw ghetto and when
Germany attacked the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, the same fate befell
Renata: she was taken to the Bialystok ghetto and forced to work on road
construction at the age of 14. Her faithful nanny, Janka, came to
search for her, smuggled her out and both returned to Warsaw. Renata
entered the ghetto to be with her family. Janka brought them food,
money and medicines. In the summer of 1942 Renata decided to leave,
and was smuggled out by a Polish "Blue " policeman, who worked for the
underground, Pawel Golombek, who with his wife cared for her until she
returned under the care of the Czerniakowskis. They got her the birth
certificate of Irena Podbielski (thinking that she had died) and then a
Kennkarte, as well as for her sister Anna, who also succeeded to get out.
Leszka accompanied Renata everywhere. Janka, trying to relieve Renata's
tension, took her to many different places, teaching her how to blend with
the farm population. As Janka also tried to help Aleksander to get
out, a German policeman shot her near the ghetto wall. So Renata
stayed again with the Golombeks and the Barczaks, who also sheltered another
girl of Semitic appearance. When Renata tried to commit suicide,
their son, Janek saved her at the very last moment. He was later
killed in the Warsaw Uprising. Renata let herself to be rounded up
for forced labor in Germany where she worked as a Pole and managed to send
food packages to the Czerniakowskis. They all belonged to the resistance
and stayed in contact with Zegota, of which they told Renata nothing for
reasons of security. Leszka was wounded in the Warsaw Uprising and
was captured by the Soviets, who inducted her into the Kosciuszko Polish
army under Soviet command, as they needed physicians and she was a medical
student. Renata, liberated in Manheim in 1945, returned to Warsaw,
and testified on behalf of count Czerniakowski. When the Stalinist
rule established itself in Poland he was sent nonetheless to prison for
5 years, his wife for 3 years and Leszka was barred from completing her
medical studies. Aleksander, after defending Pawel Golombek from
the Communists, left Poland for Canada with Anna and Renata. In 1991
Renata returned to Poland, found Leszka and petitioned Yad Vashem for recognition
of the Czerniakowskis as "Righteous Among Nations". See: Tomaszewski
& Werbowski, op. cit.
CZERNIECKI, Stanislaw (1913-)
Living in Lvov during the
occupation, he was a member of the AK resistance and helped several Jews.
He gave the birth certificate of his brother to Marian Tennenbaum and transported
his mother to Warsaw. Cyla Rozencweig also got her "Aryan" documents
from him and thus was able to leave for Rumania with her small child; others
left for Hungary. She returned to Poland while Marian went to Canada.
See: Grynberg, op. cit.
CZERNIEWICZ, Franciszka see
CZERNY-BIERNAT, Zofia see
CZESNOWICKI, Emilia, wife
CZESNOWICKI, Jadwiga, daughter
CZETWERTYNSKI, prince Witold
CZEZOWSKI, Tadeusz, university
CZEZOWSKI, Antonina, wife
CZEZOWSKI, Teresa, daughter
They lived in Vilna, (city
incorporated into the Soviet Lithuania). Before the war, Tadeusz
fought against anti-Semitic outbursts. During the occupation he visited
Jews in the ghetto, bringing them food and medicine. Then he gave
refuge in his home to the family of Abram Fessel and Wolk, and later to
another family. Besides, they had a room rented to a Lithuanian.
For security's sake they did not tell him anything about their eight (8)
guests. The professor got them fake documents and sent Abram's family,
Rachela Gurwicz-Kaplanowski, Mayena, Tamara Wolfson and Chaim Epstein with
his family, to his acquaintances the Iwanowskis, near Dzisna. For
all these years he harbored also Zlata Koczerginski-Burgin in his apartment.
At his request, his assistant, Zajkowski, harbored Cywia Nabozna-Wildstein.
All survived. The family was invited to Israel in 1963 to be decorated
as "Righteous Among Nations". See: Their photo on p. 656 of Grynberg,
CZOLOWSKI, Stanislaw (1880-1946)
CZOLOWSKI, Aniela (1886-1969)
The couple lived with their
daughter Zofia (later Majewski) in Lvov. Stanislaw owned a stationery
business and had contacts with many Jews. Aniela provided food for
her friend, Klara Penzias in the ghetto, but Klara died of natural causes
before the liberation. Stanislaw, according to the testimony of Maria
Warschauer, helped her and two sisters Sabina and Lola Szenicer in a critical
moment. When the three women were escaping from the Germans toward
the Soviet side, he transported them to the river Bug, found them a boatman,
paid for their crossing and placed them on a nearby estate. Asked
for help by Dr. Mieczyslaw Bannet from Cracow, interned in the Lvov ghetto,
Stanislaw entered the ghetto, but was arrested and imprisoned. The
family succeeded to free him but he was already gravely ill. See:
Grynberg, op. cit.
CZUBA, Michal (not related)
CZUBAK, Genowefa, nun
She was called Sister Dolorosa
in the Convent of the Order of St. Ignatius of Loyola, at Pruzana, in northeastern
Poland. When she took ill, the nuns brought from the ghetto the only
physician in that locality, Dr. Olga Goldfein. In Agust 1942 the
doctor, under the pretext to see how his patient is doing, visited the
convent and sister Dolorosa promised to help. In November Dr. Olga,
after an unsuccessful attempt on her life, came to the convent begging
for help. She remained hidden in the convent for several weeks.
When the superiors in Bialystok learned of that, sister Dolorosa was reprimanded
for infringing the rules by giving access to a lay person, and deprived
of her teaching position. In January Dr. Olga appeared again at the
gate of the convent, this time after having escaped from a transport of
Jews to a death camp. She was given a nun's habit as sister Helena
and both left the convent. They marched from village to village,
until they reached Olszyny, Sister Dolorosa's family, where they stayed
for 15 months. Sister Helena dispensed her medical attentions to
whoever needed it. After the war Sister Dolorosa was informed that
she was being expelled from the convent, removed her nun's habit and returned
to her secular name, remaining faithful to her religion. Dr. Goldfein
left for Israel and died in 1974. See: Paldiel, op. cit.
CZUBCZENKO Danuta, wife
CZUBCZENKO, Leon's mother
CZUPRYNIAK, Wladyslaw (1895-1952)
CZUPRYNIAK, Irena (1906-1979)
CZUPRYNIAK, Janusz Wlodzimierz
The Czupryniaks lived at
Ursus near Warsaw. Wladyslaw had business contacts with Mosze Lejb
(Marian) Rottenberg from Radom. Their common acquaintance, F. Zugajewicz,
proposed that Janusz help the Rottenbergs who were in the ghetto.
Janusz, a soldier of the AK, helped in 1942 Mosze and his wife Olga to
leave the ghetto, and after a brief stay at Zugajewicz, transported them
by a furniture cart to his parents' house. The Jews stayed at the
house but in case of danger could use a shelter outside, made out of a
projected canalization opening. Janusz went also to Radom in order
to bring their old parents but did not find them alive. After the
war Rottenberg resumed work in his factory. After 1950 the family
left for Germany and Australia. See: Grynberg, op. cit
CZYRNY, Anna, wife
Michal and Anna hid in their
house in Lvov the four members family of Tadeusz and Fryderyka Rozanski
with their children, Anna and Aleksander during the years 1942-44, with
the help of Anna's aunt, Maria Borys (q.v.) and of same neighbors'.
After the war the Rozanskis left for Canada and Aleksander changed his
name to Rossi. He died in 1994. Yad Vashem recognized the three
in 1997. Case No. 7090 and 7090a. Their cause was started in
CZYZYKOWSKI, Maria, wife