see POPOWSKI, Stanislaw, Dr. & M. parents?
TADRA, Ewa, wife
Regina had 17 years when
she had to take care alone of several Jewish persons sheltered by her parents,
who were absent earning a living. She was honored on Dec. 15, 1999
as stated the Israeli Embassy in Poland.
TARAS-CAJTAK, (CAJTAG ?)
Aleksandra see CAJTAK (CAJTAG ?)-TARAS, A.
TARASEWICZ. Waclaw (1913-1989)
TARASEWICZ, Halina, (1906-)
The Tarasewicz couple lived
in Warsaw. They harbored in their home a 5 years old girl, Ludwika,
daughter of Dr. Stein and his wife Anna. The Jewish couple was in
the ghetto, but succeeded in getting their daughter out of the ghetto to
the "Aryan" side. The Tarasewiczes got false documents for her, presenting
her as Halina's daughter from a previous marriage. But they were
so harassed by blackmailers that they had to move several times.
After the Warsaw Uprising Waclaw was sent to a POW camp and Halina with
Ludwika hid in the Kielce area where her parents lived. Towards the
end of 1945 Ludwika's aunt took her to France and then both went to Brazil.
There, Ludwika directs a children hospital. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
TARASIEWICZ, Hieronim (not
TARKA, Stanislawa, wife
TARKA Stanislaw, son
TARNOGORSKI, Maria (1896-)
The Tarnogorski family, with
seven children, farmed in the village of Mala Slusza, Kamien-Kaszyrska
district. On Nov. 1942, Abraham Biber (17) escaped from the ghetto
of this town and came to the Tarnogorskis for shelter. They knew
his family from before the war. They took him in until he established
with their help in April 1943 a contact with a partisan unit, which he
joined. After the war he went to Israel and in 1985 he read a note
in a Polish paper and contacted his saviors. See: Grynberg. op. cit.
TARNOWSKI, Maria Janina
Janina Tarnowski, a primary
school teacher, sheltered in her apartment Mr. Birkam from Tarnow, as a
supposed cousin. The entire village knew it and kept silent.
Birkam lives now in Israel. See: Wronski & Zwolakowa, op. cit.
* TATOMIR, Jan (1894-1943)
TATOMIR, Julia (-1985) wife
TATOMIR-ZAK, Jozefa, daugther
The Tatomirs lived at Jaroslawice,
Tarnopol prov. with their seven children. They hid on their farm
the following six (6) Jewish persons: Elza Redner-Berensztajn and her son
Henio (4) whom Jan brought from the Buczacz ghetto. Further Liba
Mandel and her son Kuba (18) who had been hiding in a forest, Antonina
Kalafer and Nella Buchsbajewa. Both had been in a forced labor camp
at Jagielnica, near Czortkow. In July 1943 the Germans liquidated
the camp and murdered the inmates. Jan, who was a bricklayer by profession,
built a proper hideout for all of them and all survived with the exception
of Jan whom the Germans murdered in 1943. The Russian front approached
and the population had to be evacuated, which meant death sentence for
the Jews. So Janina, not knowing German, went to the unit stationed
there and tried to explain them that she, her mother and her sister are
very expert in peeling potatoes, so that they should not be evacuated.
The next day she received a permit allowing them to stay for their work
in the kitchen. The mother and the two elder daughters peeled potatoes
working their fingers to the bone, but they remained. Nella Buchsbbajewa
in 1961 declared that all of them owe their life to the Tatomirs, who did
not spare efforts, to keep all of them alive. Jan Tatomir was awaraded
posthumously the medal Righteous Among Nations and was mentioned here previously
in the list of Those Who Paid With Their Lives. See: Grynberg, op.
TAZBIR, Wanda, daughter
TECKO, Joanna (1916-)
Joanna lived at Choszczowka,
near Warsaw. In the spring of 1943 she met a Jewish woman, Elzbieta
B. who asked her to get her uncle, Herman Osterweil and his 6-year old
son, Jerzyk, out of the ghetto. Joanna traveled several times to
Tarnow and first brought to Warsaw the boy and later his father.
Each time she had to get for them new false documents. She placed
the boy with her friends, the Kaminskis, at Brwinow, near Warsaw and Herman
at the Karpinskis in Bielany (a suburb of Warsaw.). She often brought
Jerzyk to see his father. During one of these visits, the child witnessed
his father's death, shot by blackmailers. Joanna placed the child
elswhere. Jerzy, now Josif Osterweil, who lived in Israel, and later
in the USA, came twice to visit Joanna, but he did not find the other people.
In March 1989 Elzbieta B. wrote that there was never any talk about payment
for all this trouble and risk. Although she was very poor, she accepted
only reluctantly the costs of the several travels. Elzbieta B. described
in glowing terms the disinterestedness and devotion of Joanna Tecko and
the other peoople who similarly helped them but have not been recognized.
See Grynberg, op. cit.
TENDERA, Franciszek and
TENDERA, Teodor (brothers?)
TENDZIAGOLSKI, Jozefa, wife
see DOR-TENENBAUM, M.
TERESZKIEWICZ, Jozefa, wife
TESKA, Maria, wife
see PORANSKI-TESZNER, D.
see BARTCZAK-TEWEL, F.
TEGI, Stanislaw (1908-1984)
TEGI, Irena Kazimiera (1914-1984)
The Tegis lived in Koscian,
Poznan prov. and had a shoe store there. Stanislaw was in the Polish
Army in 1939, was taken prisoner, but escaped and returned home.
Soon he went to Warsaw where he had relatives and where his wife and children
joined him. In Warsaw he opened a shop with leather goods.
In 1943 Jerzy Pfeiffer, who escaped from the death camp in Majdanek, came
to him. Stanislaw provided him with clothing, shoes and money and
often hid him in his store. Pfeiffer in his letter to Yad Vashem
wrote that Stanislaw found for him a loan of US$ 1,000 that enabled him
to hide for a year at Mrs. Zelichowski. See Greenberg, op. cit.
see GASKA, Zbigniew, husband
TKACZYK, Jozef (1923-)
TKACZYK, Zofia (1927-),
(1920-) Jozef's sister
Jozef Tkaczyk, a lieutenant
of the AK, and his wife Zofia harbored a young Jewish woman, Ada Kurc and
her mother. Ada Kurc had been a secretary of prince Sapieha, on his
estate in Silesia. She had already false documents under another
name. As Tkaczyk at that time worked in a restaurant called Salina,
he brought meals for both fugitives from there. Ada got a job in
the Austrian Holzinger auto parts company. One day, walking on the
street with a Polish colleague, Stefania Wilczek, she was arrested as a
Jewess. At the Gestapo quarters, in order to find out if she is Polish
and Catholic, as both women affirmed, the policemen made her recite Catholic
prayers. She knew them well, fortunately, and this saved her.
This was quite a common occurrence and only shows how important it was
for the Jews to know the religion of the surrounding Polish population.
After two days she was free and could resume her work. Ada's mother
did not leave the house at all. Ada had family, sisters and brothers
also hidden in Warsaw, but for security reasons did not maintain any contacts
with them. After the war both women settled in Switzerland.
See: Bednarczyk, "Zycie Codzienne." op. cit.
TKOCZ, Jozef (1904-1975)
TKOCZ, Maria, (1921-) wife
The cople lived in Wodzislaw
Slaski. The Germans started to evacuate the inmates of Auschwitz
in the middle of 1944, first by train, and later driving them on foot.
On Jan. 20, 1945 three women knocked on the door of the Tkoczes and asked
to be taken inside. They had escaped from the column of the people
driven towards Germany. They told the owners that they were Jewish
and their names were Erna Brzegowski from Bedzin, Genia Klapholtz from
Cracow and Jadwiga Schilit also from Bedzin. The Tkoczes kept them
till the coming of the Russians, i.e. till April 5, 1945. Maria Tkocz
wrote that she did it to save their lives. She did not feel right
to refuse help to persons who avoided death in Auschwitz. After the
war the women moved to the USA and to Israel. They maintained very
close contacts with their saviors. See: Grynberg, op. cit. in which
he quotes their loving letters to them.
* TOKARZ, Jakub (1896-1942)
Tokarz lived with his wife
and six children at Biedaczow, near Lezajsk. In 1942 some people
escaped from the massacre of Jews in nearby Zolynia and came to Jakub for
shelter. They were the four persons from the Hersz Mejloch Ruemler
family. He hid them in the barn. A neighbor informed the police
that Jakub was harboring Jews. The gendarmes took the Jews and shot
them and they murdered Jakub in the cemetery of Lezajsk. Jakub Tokarz
was awarded posthumously with the medal Righteous Among the Nations and
as such was mentioned here previously in the List of "Those Who Paid with
Their Lives." See: Grynberg, op. cit.
TOLOCZKO, Katarzyna, wife
TOLOCZKO, Kazimierz, son
Halina (not related)
Roman and Ewelina Winter
declared at the Polish consulate in Montreal already on Nov. 8, 1947, the
following: "During the German occupation, from Aug. 10, 1942 till
May 1944 we were hidden in the apartment of Mrs. Helena Kopcinska of Tolloczko,
at 62 Filtrowa Str., app. 63 in Warsaw". And they continue: ".She
did it on an honorary basis, not counting on our gratitude in moments particularly
threatening and tragic she kept up our mood and when we were in a most
difficult financial position she protected us in a special way. We
can repeat our statement any moment under oath." The statement above
came to the knowledge of this researcher only in 1990. The documents
of Halina Kopcinski, born Tolloczko, later Wyganowski and Roman Winter's
mother to her are in possession of this author. Yad Vashem recognized
Halina Kopcinski-Wyganowski as "Righteous Among the Nations" by letter
dated Jan 23, 1997. Case No. 7283, started in 1990.
Antonina see SZCZAWINSKI, Eugenia, mother?
TOMASZEWSKI, Stanislaw (not
TOMASZEWSKI, Waleria, wife
TOMASZEWSKI, Edward, son
TOMASZEWSKI, Maria, daughter
see PARCZYNSKI-TOMCZALA, S.
TOMCZYK, Genowefa, wife
TONIAK, Karolina, wife
TONIAK, Janina, daughter
see STEFANOWICZ, Leon & Stefania, parents?
The Toszas and their son
Tadeusz harbored a Jewish man, Stanislaw H. A professor and the janitor
Wojnarowski took also part in his saving. Stanislaw H. made his deposition
under oath to Yad Vashem in 1988. The couple was awarded the medal
"Righteous among the Nations" by the letter dated Oct. 1, 1991. Case
No. 5011. It was started in 1986.
TRACZ, Maria, wife
TRACZ, Jozefa, daughter
TRACZ, Stefania, daughter
Wilhelm lived at Kopyczynce,
Tarnopol prov. During the occupation he hid, besides his own wife
of Jewish descent, four Jewish families, i.e. fourteen (14) Jews and that
in spite of pressures from his family to stop doing it. All survived.
The majority of them settled in the USA. He himself went to Israel.
See: Grynberg, op. cit.
TRAWINSKI, Mila, wife
TREDJAKOWSKI, Helena, wife
TRNKA, Otylia Emilia, described
here under her sisters's name: GERE, Anita (q.v.)
TROJANOWSKI, Andrzej, Dr.
(1905-1964) surgeon and researcher
This doctor was active in
the Coordinating Committee of Democratic and Socialist Doctors, established
in 1940 in Warsaw. It counted in its ranks many prominent representatives
of the medical profession. Dr. Trojanowski performed with great personal
risk and free of charge, operations that removed Jews' Semitic features
and traces of ca. 50 circumcisions. These operations had to be done
in the places where the patients lived and under the most primitive conditions.
See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit., Grynberg, op. cit.
TROJANOWSKI, Jan (1870-1950)
TROJANOWSKI, Paulina (1876-1962)
TROJANOWSKI, Barbara (1906-)
Jan had a shoe store in their
flat in Warsaw. It consisted of two rooms with a kitchen, and had
two entrances. They took into their apartment Jakub Wilner and his
wife. For moments of particular danger there was a niche concealed
by a wardrobe. Before that, the Wilners stayed with Miria Jiruski
(q.v.) to whom they came thanks to Barbara. Both Wilners took part
in the occupations of the owners. Gustawa, Wilners; daughter, wrote
in her memoirs that this worthy family merits the highest respect and recognition.
Their son, Arie Wilner, was the head of the Jewish resistance. He
represented the ZOB (Jewish Fighting Organization) on the "Aryan" side.
He committed suicide on May 8, 1943 in the bunker on Mila 18. See:
Grynberg, op. cit.
Stanislaw was the principal
of a school in Warsaw and after the "liberation" by the Soviets the vice-minister
for Education in the Polish People's Republic. He hid part of the
archives of the Jewish National Committee in the cellar of the school.
See Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit.
see GORSKI, Stanislaw & Anna, parents?
TRUCHANOWICZ, Maria, wife
TRYBUS, Mieczyslaw, son
TRYBUS, Justyna Danuta
TRYFON, Ryszard Jan
TRZCINSKI, Jan, son
TRZCINSKI, Stefan, son
Boguslawa see JEZOWSKI-TRZEBIATOWSKI, B.
Ladyslawa and Waclawa lived
before the war in Chodecz, near Wloclawek. During the occupation
they lived in Warsaw. Alicja Reicher, their acquaintance, had escaped
deportation from Chodecz to the Lodz ghetto and came over to them.
Waclawa bought her a false birth certificate with her own money.
After the Warsaw Uprising they found themselves in the Pruszkow camp, from
where they were sent to work in Germany. Alicja presented herself
as the second daughter of Ladyslawa. Now Alicja lives in Brazil.
See: Grynberg, op. cit.
TRZECIAK, Anna, wife
TRZECIAK, Waclaw, son
TUBIANSKI, Krystyna, daughter
TUBIANSKI, Zbigniew, son
TULBINSKI, Paulina, wife
TURCZYNSKI, Boleslaw (1897-)
TURCZYNSKI, Helena (1899-1981)
The Turczynskis lived in
Brwinow near Warsaw. Boleslaw was a musician. Helena worked
as a nurse in a military hospital. At the beginning of 1941 the Wajsblat
family came to them for shelter: the mother with her daughter -in-law and
the latter's two sons, Jerzy (15) and Adam (11). They remained for
six months. Later Helena found them a safer place in the country,
with her relatives Eulalia and Waclaw Bursa. After a year, the Wajsblats
returned and lived with the Wezowczyk family, but continued to be under
the care of the Turczynskis. The grandmother and Adam survived.
Jerzy died in 1943 and the daughter-in-law after the "liberation".
Other Jews also benefited from the Turczynskis' help: Anna Minc, a dentist
from Suwalki, who remained with them for two years, Bela Montrol, a microbiologist,
and her 12 years old daughter, also for two years. Later Helena placed
the last two with Tadeusz and Janina Sitarz, from where they returned to
the Turczynskis. The Turczynskis saved also other Jews: Helena and
Bronislawa Gothelf with her sons, Jerzy and Jozef, Jadwiga, Krystyna and
Piotr Godecki. There were dramatic moments with the blackmailers,
police searches, etc. but all survived. Adam Drozdowicz, brother-in-law
of Anna Minc, now a professor in Rio de Janeiro, brought people over to
hide to the Turczynskis. He wrote that the entire Turczynski family
took part in saving of all those people. Thanks to their prudence
and self-control they succeeded to hide them in time and protect them from
denunciation. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
Anjtoni Tutak from Czajkow
Poludniowy, Tarnobrzeg prov. was one of ca. 50 Poles who helped the following
Jews in Czajkow and vicinity: Elias and Regina F., Maurice F., Aleksander
E., Szymon R., Lola W., Meir B., Rina N. S. Just like the others,
Antoni sheltered them, fed them, cared for them and thus saved them.
Yad Vashem recognized him as "Righteous among the Nations". The letter
announcing this is dated Sept. 5, 1996, Case No. 6510B. His cause
was started in 1987.
TWARDZICKI, Helena, daughter
TWARDZICKI, Zofia, daughter
TWARDZICKI, Zofia (another
one, not related)
TWARDZICKI, Jerzy, son
TWARDZICKI, Tadeusz, son
TWARDZIK, Maria, wife
TWARDZIK, Ludwik, son
TWARDZIK, Piotr, son
TWARDZIK, Tomasz, son
TWERS, Stanislawa, wife
TWERS, Paulina, Edward's
TWOREK, Janina, wife
TWORKOWSKI, Anna , wife
TYCHON-MIKULKO, Maria see
MIKULKO, Michalina, mother
see SITKO, Janina, sister
TYMOFICZUK, Stanislaw (1923-)
During the occupation Stanislaw
resided in Lvov. He had one room with a kitchen, in a wooden house
without sanitation. A Jewish family lived in the other part of the
house. When this family had to move to the ghetto, Stanislaw took
over their apartment. According to some sources, Germans deported
65,000 Jews from Lvov to Belzec. They shot 5,000 in the city.
Other Jews were murdered in the Ukrainian nationalists' pogroms.
In January 1943 the Germans burnt several thousand Jews alive in a synagogue.
Katzman, the commander of the SS and of the police, issued a decree that
whoever harbored or fed a Jew would be put to death. In January 1943
a colleague of Stanislaw, Stefan Hupalowski, asked him to hide two brothers,
who escaped from the ghetto and avoided the massacres, Jozef and Zygmunt
Herschder. Stanislaw agreed. The brothers asked him to harbor
also their friend, who then was in the Janowski camp, the lawyer Henryk
Baustein. In June 1943 Stefan Hupalowski returned with the request
to save the Lichter couple. All the weight of hiding, feeding and
protecting five people fell on young Stanislaw's shoulders. Under
the floor in the cellar he built a bunker to which they descended in moments
of particular danger. In his deposition to the ZIH (Jewish Historical Institute) Stanislaw wrote
that a Jewish couple, which escaped from the ghetto hid in the nearby building
with 10 tenants. Germans with dogs and Ukrainians surrounded the
building. The Jews defended themselves. So the Germans set
the building on fire. The "Aktion", in which our house was also included,
lasted six hours. But Stanislaw's charges survived. The Lichters
stated in October 1966: "Stanislaw Tymoficzuk was our benefactor.
He saved our lives and the lives of three other Jews. He was so noble and
so generous. He and his family should be blessed. We have to pass
it from generation to generation, in order that the memory of such merits
would not be forgotten". Dr. Cvi Baustein wrote that Tymoficzuk did
it totally disinterestedly; he cared for them as if he were their father,
provided them with food. "I owe my life only and exclusively to Tymoficzuk
. a brave, heroic man of the noblest qualities and feelings of a human
being". Stanislaw belongs to a very small group of Poles recognized
by Yad Vashem as "Righteous Among the Nations" who at such a young age,
- he was then 20 - took his decisions all alone and saved lives from certain
death. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
TYMPALSKI, Michalina Krystyna
TYRCZ, Anna, wife
TYRCZ, Apolonia, Michal's
TYRCZ, Michal, son
TYRCZ, Stefan, son
The Tyrcz family lived near
the town of Zborow in southeastern Poland (now in Ukraine). They
hid nine (9) Jews from April 1943 to September 1944. Leon Kronisch,
a rich grain merchant, contacted his friend Sebastjan, a sharecropper about
hiding his family. When the Germans liquidated the Zborow ghetto,
Sebastjan helped to smuggle out of it first the Jewish girls, dressing
them as Polish peasants. Soon the others joined them. Sebastian
with the help of his wife, two sons and daughter-in-law, arranged a hideout
atop their grain silo. The Tyrczes brought them every day soup, bread
and milk. The hidden persons passed their time in reading Polish
books and papers, in which food was wrapped. A neighbor heard noises
and accused Tyrczes of hiding Jews. Then the Tyrczes moved their
charges to a pit that served for potatoes. It was so small that when
one turned all had to turn. The Kronisches went on to settle in Canada
and helped Stefan and his sister-in-law, Apolonia, to come also to Canada,
to Niagara-on-the- Lake, as the others were not living anymore. In
1990 four of the rescued persons petitioned Yad Vashem to recognize the
family as "Righteous Among the Nations". In Sept. 1992 Stefan and
Apolonia were honored in Toronto, in the presence of three of their rescuees,
at the Israeli Consulate. The emotional ceremony was presided by
Joel Dimitry, chairman of the Canadian Society for Yad Vashem and Dror
Zeigerman, the Consul-General of Israel. Asked why they did it, Stefan
Tyrcz answered: "We were good friends. We understood the danger,
but we did it anyway". Apolonia added: "If you didn't live
through it you can't believe it". This comes from an article by Ron
Csillag, in the Canadian Jewish News, Sept. 17, 1992, p. 30. The
photograph shows Apolonia and Stefan Tyrcz, flanked by Joel Dimitry on
the left and the Consul Dror Zeigerman on the right. A shorter article
by Stasia Ewasuk was published also on the subject in "The Toronto Star"
on Sept. 10, 1992.
TYRYLLO, Grzegorz (1893-1947)
TYRYLLO, Stefania, wife
TYRYLLO, Jan, son
The Tyryllos lived in Vilna
in a house that bordered on the ghetto. Towards the end of 1943,
Jan, then 13, found a group of Jews hiding in the loft of his building.
He knew some of them. Shortly before that the Germans had found a
bigger group of Jews in the cellar of the same building and took them off.
Jan suggested to them to move from the loft to the cellar, reasoning that
the Germans will not search that cellar again. Six of the Jews moved
to the cellar and survived. Among them, were Rebeka Feldman, her
sister Sara and a girl Lena. Those who remained in the loft were
discovered by the Germans and killed. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
TYZ-KORENIUK, Maria, wife