MACELEWICZ-KLARMAN, Krystyna see KLARMAN, Bronislawa, mother
MACH, Stanislaw
MACH, Honorata, wife
MACH-JEDRYCZEK, Wanda, daughter

MACHOWICZ, Wanda (1914-) wife

The couple resided in Wolomin, near Warsaw. In the fall of 1942 Germans liquidated the ghetto deporting most of the Jews to Treblinka and killing 620 on the spot. Jakub and Maria Sztajnhart took refuge with the Machowicz couple, which they knew before the war. At the beginning Wanda sold merchandise deposited by the Sztajnhart with them, and when the proceeds from that sale ran out, she, with her husband, maintained the Jewish couple until the end of the war. In moments of danger the Jews hid in a hideout in the cellar. They emigrated abroad. See: Grynberg, op. cit.+


Natalia and David Twersky, fearing deportation to the Plaszow camp, asked Helena Maciarz to take in their only child and paid for it in advance. The boy had spent some time with her before, during a critical moment of a German "akcja"(roundup of Jews). Helena promised to take care of him. But fearing for the safety of her own two daughters, she lost her resolve and decided to turn the boy in to the Germans. Her mother-in-law, Maria Maciarz, unknown to the Twersky couple, appalled by such an intention, took the boy herself and kept him until the end of the war. When the boy's parents returned from their respective concentration camps, he from Mauthausen, she from Ravensbruck, they found their son safe and supported by the love of Maria, called "grandmother" by the child. Natalia, before emigrating, transferred the title to her parents' home to Maria, who signed the deed with a cross. "Illiterate, but with a heart and feelings of a saint" wrote Natalia. See: Paldiel, op. cit.

MACIAGA, Stanislaw
MACIAGA, Maria, wife

MACIEJEWSKI, Jozef (not related to Henryk, but to Mieczyslaw)
MACIEJEWSKI, Lucyna, wife (omitted from the List of 1999, but appeared before)

MACIEJEWSKI-PUCHALSKI, Krystyna (not related) see PUCHALSKI, Jan & Anna parents?
MACIEJKO, Wojciech
MACUGOWSKI, Stefania, wife

MADEJ, Ignacy (1893-)
+MADEJ, Ksenia (1891-) wife

Ignacy Madej was a school principal of a primary school for Jewish children in Wolhynia in the years 1921-25. When in September 1942 Boleslaw Auerbach implored him on his knees to save his daughter, Alina, Ignacy imagined that she might be one of those children and he took the girl in. Alina declared in 1982: "My parents, Boleslaw and Malwina Auerbach entrusted me to Ignacy and Ksenia Madej, who took care of me from purely humanitarian motives. They surrounded me with goodness and love, trying, as far as possible, to replace me my parents. Up to this day I am in contact with Mr. Madej and will always remember that he and his wife saved my life". See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MADEJ, Mieczyslaw (not related)
MADEJ, Jozefa, wife, born JESIONOWSKI

The couple, residing in Warsaw helped several Jews, in particular the Kachan family, the mother Zofia, her daughter Rachela and her aunt Bronislawa. Jozefa harbored the girl from 1943 till 1946. She put her aunt, Bronislawa - who escaped from the ghetto with Zofia - in Zalesie as a maid, providing her with false documents. When some members of the Kachan family were deported to the Trawniki forced labor camp, Jozefa brought them food there several times. Mieczyslaw was arrested and perished in Auschwitz. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MAJ-PRZENIOSLO, Honorata see PRZENIOSLO, Jan & Maria, parents

MAJ-JANICKI, Zofia (not related)
Dionizy, son?

MAJDA, Aleksander Jozef

From 1940 till 1944 there operated in Warsaw a secret Committee of Democratic and Socialist Doctors. Aleksander was one of six medical students active in the medical care of Jews cared for by the Zegota. Fifty five (55) such doctors took part in home visits, coordinated by Drs. Ludwik Rostkowskis, father and son: Drs. Kazimierz Bacia, Jerzy Hruzewicz, Feliks Kanabus (q.v.) Tadeusz Kaszubski, Janina Krajewski, Jadwiga Pagowski, (q.v.), Tadeusz Stepniewski, Alina Przerwa-Tetmajer, Ludwika Tarlowski, Zofia Tyszka, Andrzej Trojanowski, (q.v.) Maria Wideman, Helena Wolff, all specialists, seconded by the following nurses: Hanna Burakiewicz, Zofia Krynski, Janina Lipinski-Rostkowski, Maria Pagowski, T. Romanowski, Natalia Rutkiewicz, Stanislawa Trojanowski, and Maria Zachert. Each one of them brought apart from medical attention, medicine and often food and garments, all for free, from several times in a month, to one or more times every day. Many of them were killed. The Committee published the "Medical ABC", confronting the false German propaganda. See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, and also Prekerowa, op. cit.

MAJEK, Julianna
MAJEK, Kazimierz, son
MAJEK, Longina, daughter
MAJEWSKI, Aleksander
MAJEWSKI, Helena, wife

MAJEWSKI, Bronislaw (not related)

MAJEWSKI, Bronislawa (not related)

MAJEWSKI, Genowefa (not related)

MAJEWSKI, Helena (not related)

MAJEWSKI-GYNALSKI, Leokadia (not related) see GYNALSKI, Anna

MAJEWSKI-KREISBERG, Maria (not related)

MAJEWSKI, Tadeusz (1904-) (not relaated)

Tadeusz resided in Warsaw. He took into his apartment, where there were already ten persons, Roza Arenstejn, who had to leave in a hurry her previous shelter, arranged for her by Wieslawa Martyniak. When people started to suspect that she was Jewish, Tadeusz moved her to his brother Cyprian, with whom she stayed till the war's end. She left for the USA. See: Grynberg, op. cit. Wieslawa and Cyprian are not recognized.

MAJEWSKI, Zofia (not related)


Leokadia Majkowski spent her childhood in a Jewish neighborhood in Warsaw and was an employee of the Jew Mojzesz Pinczower. In 1942 Mojzesz came to her apartment asking for refuge for himself and his son. For a certain time they lived in one room, Leokadia with her mother Zofia and the Pinczowers. But soon, Lekadia rented a two-room apartment, in which she put up the Pinczowers: Mojzesz, his wife Szosza, their son Adam and their daughter Teresa in one room and Leokadia with a colleague, Sabina Podlasiak, in the other. She also managed to get a Kennkarte for Mojzesz under the name of Mieczyslaw Kaminski. Her apartment, near the Ghetto wall, was often used as a first stop for escapees from the ghetto, from where they were taken to other hideouts. This lasted till May 1943. Adam Pinczower joined the partisans and perished in the ranks of the G.L (People's Guard). The hideout of the Pinczowers was discovered. Leokadia rented a new apartment in the name of her colleague Sabina, where she transferred the Pinczowers, bringing them food. Szosza was taken into a roundup when going to the doctor. Leokadia put her daughter, Teresa, in a children pension, where she waited till the end of the war. After the Warsaw Uprising (1944), Leokadia found herself with Mojzesz in the Pruszkow camp and went to Zelazowo (Kielce prov.) where they were considered a married couple, as the Kaminskis. Soon they had to leave for Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski, as people started to talk that Mojzesz might be Jewish. Leokadia married Mojzesz in 1951 and adopted his daughter Teresa. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MAKAR, Katarzyna, wife
MAKAR-DWORCZYK, Karolina, daughter?
MAKARA, Marian
MAKARA, Rozalia, wife

MAKOWSKI, Sister Bogumila, nun (lay name Zofia)

The following is her statement of July 16, 1985 in Labunie: "We accepted everyone. We never thought about whether a child was German or Jewish or anything else. Our only consideration was that it was a child and we took in children". The sisters took in so many children that they had to convert their large chapel in their convent on Zdanowski Street in Zamosc, into sleeping quarters, so that they had to hear Mass in the hallway. They occupied also a nearby school. When this also proved insufficient, they placed some children with Polish families. The sisters did not get any subsidies for the children and maintained them by collecting gifts. "Our entire treasure was the children", she says. The Mother Superior was an Irish nun, Katherine Crowley. See: Kurek, Ewa: "Your Life Is Worth Mine; How Polish Nuns Saved Hundreds of Jewish Children in German-Occupied Poland. op. cit.


MAKUCH, Barbara, born SZYMANSKI, alias "BASIA", "WANDA"
MAKUCH, Barbara's mother SZYMANSKI, Janina, born JACUNSKI

Barbara, 18 years old in 1939, was an instructor in an agricultural school in Sandomierz, where she stayed temporarily with her mother and sister. In the summer of 1942 a Jewish woman asked them to save her young daughter, Malka. The Szymanski women took the girl in and called her Marysia (the most popular Polish name). They harbored also a fourteen year old Jewish boy, whom for the girl's security they put in the school under the care of its brave director, Mr. Polomski. Barbara's sister, Halina, also rescued from the Lvov ghetto a prominent Jewish doctor, Lilie. Thinking that it would be safer in a big city; Barbara traveled with Malka to Lwow. The journey took five days (instead of five hours) because Germans searched the train in each station. In Lvov resided Barbara's sister Halina with her husband, both members of Zegota, to which they introduced Barbara. As their home was not a safe place for the small Jewish girl, they also arranged to put Marysia in an orphanage run by the Felician Sisters. Soon Barbara became Zegota's courier between Warsaw and Lvov. It was an extremely dangerous assignment; she had to transport money and forged documents for the Lvov Jews. On each trip people were pulled off of the train and often shot on the spot. One day she and her AK companion were apprehended with two big suitcases full of such documents and put in the infamous castle in Lublin. Barbara was incarcerated in solitary confinement, in a washroom. Her AK companion was killed. Terribly beaten for a long time, she steadfastly denied that the suitcases were hers, and did not betray any of her contacts. Transferred to a prison to Lvov where women were shot in the cellar and men were hanged from the lamp posts on the streets, she expected imminent death. In prison she befriended a young woman, Ewa Gibalska, who told Barbara that her parents died during WWI, and she was adopted by a prominent lady doctor, who was rescued from the Lvov ghetto by Halina, Barbara's sister. One day, Ewa was taken away for interrogation and did not return.

In January 1943 the underground succeeded by means of a bribe to let Barbara be taken to the Ravensbrueck camp for women in Germany, where many of them were used for "medical" experimentation which most did not survive. Even there, working in the kitchen, she managed to steal food for her companions. Other inmates died or were shot on the forced march of 300-400 kilometers, driven west to escape the approaching Russian army, Liberated by the Americans she, with some of her companions, marched for a month (sometimes accepting a lift on a coal car) amidst ruins, criminals, Russian soldiers raping and killing, toward Poland. She was reunited with her mother and her sister Halina. Barbara got a job and found a place to work in a doctor's home. She talked especially with the mother of the family. The old lady told her that during the WW1 she adopted a newborn girl, Ewa, left by her mother searching for her husband: In 1939 -Ewa joined the resistance and vanished. Barbara told the old lady what happened to her adopted daughter, Ewa, Barbara's friend from the prison in Lvov.

Malka vel Marysia was reunited with her mother who survived Auschwitz and emigrated from Poland first to Israel and in 1959 to Canada. They invited Barbara. to Canada, where she married Stanislaw Makuch. Barbara recognized as "Righteous" by Yad Vashem, planted in Jeruslem a tree for herself and her deceased mother Janina for saving Jewish children, on August 8, 1979. On November 8, 1979, thanks to Abba Beer, the chairman of the National Holocaust Remembrance Committee of the Canadian Jewish Congress, Barbara was honored in Montreal. The Jewish Association sent a donation of books to Israel, in Barbara's name. The Case number 1654 was started in 1978.

Her sister, Halina Ogrodzinska who cared till the end for the old Dr. Lilie, whom she extricated from the Lvov ghetto, was not recognized.

At that ceremony in Montreal, the Israeli Consul, Zwi Caspi honored also Dr. Tadeusz Brzezinski, present among the attendees, stating that he, as the Polish Consul General in Leipzig in Germany, opened the Consulate door to many persecuted Jews during the Kristallnacht (Pogrom of November 8-11, 1938) and renewed the lapsed passports of the ex-Polish Jewish citizens', thus saving their lives: Among the saved was the Israeli Consul's father. For that Dr. Brzezinski had been inscribed in Jerusalem in the Golden Book, a long time before the existence of Yad Vashem. See also: Lukas, R. C.: Out of the Inferno, op. cit., Prekerowa, op. cit., Tomaszewski & Werbowski, op. cit.

MAKUCH-KORULSKI, Wanda, (not related)
MALACHOWSKI, Wladyslaw, brother (both missing from the 1999 List, but appeared before)
MALANKIEWICZ, Maria, wife (the same for both as for the Malachowskis)
MALCZEWSKI, Franciszek
MALCZEWSKI, Dominika, wife
MALCZEWSKI, Alicja, daughter
MALEC-PRZENIOSLO, Anna see PRZENIOSLO, Jan & Maria, parents?

MALEC, Pawel (not related)
MALEC, Jozefa, wife


Helena resided in Warsaw. Before the war she knew the Friedberg family: Michal, owner of a textile company, his wife Klara and their daughter Zuzanna. When the Friedbergs were in the ghetto, Helena sneaked into it to bring them food. She extricated from the ghetto first Zuzanna in 1942, then Michal. Klara also managed to get out. Helena prepared hiding places for them in different places on the "Aryan" side and was the liaison between the parents and their daughter. She also succeeded to sell some of the textile company goods, transferring the proceeds to them. In her apartment she harbored also Dusia, wife of the lawyer Seweryn Winograd. Dusia took care of Dr. Felicja Czerniakow, wife of Adam Czerniakow, head of the Warsaw ghetto. In 1950 Zuzanna sent in a glowing attestation about the noble, heartfelt and disinterested way Helena helped the Friedberg family. See: Grynberg, op. cit.


MALINOWSKI, Bronislaw (not related)
MALINOWSKI, Zofia, wife

MALINOWSKI, Izabella (not related)

MALINOWSKI-WOLIKOWSKI, Danuta (not related)

MALINOWSKI, Jan (not related)

MALINOWSKI, Jozef (not related)
MALINOWSKI, Helena, wife

MALINOWSKI, Stanislaw (not related)
MALINOWSKI, Zofia, wife
MALINOWSKI, Janusz, son
MALUCHA, Dymitri
MALUCHA, Lucja, wife
MALUCHA, Zenon, grandson

MALECKI-KELLER, Maria (1909-)

Maria lived at Piaseczno, near Warsaw. In December 1941 she took in a ten years old boy, Edward Szulman, who was to be picked up in a few days by his mother. When the boy's mother was killed during her attempt to escape from the ghetto, Maria kept the orphan, first in her flat, and then she took him to her mother. The neighbors started to suspect that he was Jewish. Maria took care of Edward till 1947, until he went for a time to an orphanage at Skolimowo and then left for France. See: Grynberg, op. cit

MALEK-OLESZEK, Marianna, sister?

MALKIEWICZ, Henryk (not related)

MALKIEWICZ, Sister Ludwika, a nun (not relate)

In her statement of October 20, 1984 at the Otwock orphanage, Sister Ludwika relates how she came in contact with Jews. In 1940 Germans threw out the Elizabethan Sisters from their children's home at Grabia, near Torun (from the territories they annexed to the 3rd Reich) to make room for Hitlerjugend (German youth organization). The Social Welfare Dept. of Warsaw placed the Sisters in Swidrze, in the empty Jewish boarding school. The Sisters painted it and fixed it up by themselves. Its owner was Jozef Kaplon, a Jew. Sister Ludwika went to see him in the ghetto. He was happy to see her, being alone, old and ill. She brought him food and every Sunday a warm meal. She entered the Ghetto always under the barbed wire. Finally other Jews and even the ghetto police lost their suspicions of the Catholic nun and proposed her to shorten her journey from Otwock to Swidrze by walking through the ghetto. With time they even trusted her so much, that they gave her their savings for safe keeping, coming for their money at night, when they needed some. Sister Ludwika tells that the decision to help Jews, adult and children belonged to the superior, Sister Gertruda Marciniak, and to her only in cases of immediate danger. Mr. Adamowicz from the Welfare Dept. of which the director was Antoni Chacinski, brought Jewish children to the Sisters, apart from those brought by their parents. Sister Ludwika remembers Alfred Karol (Leopold Blitzylberg) son of a German mother and of a Jewish father. The father was killed in the ghetto. His wife and son escaped from it and were picked up by a good Austrian woman, Marta Harf, who looked for a way to save the child. Sister Ludwika, sent to her by the Sister superior, decided to take the seven years old boy in 1941, who remained with the Sisters till the end of the war. Another child was Daniel Lancberg, who at the request of his parents, also in 1941, was baptized as Wojciech. A German saw the boy in the window and some Germans rushed inside the convent, suspecting that the boy was Jewish. Sister superior, who spoke fluent German, received them calmly with a smile, telling them "How can you possibly think that we have Jews here?" The Germans were dumbfounded by her composed attitude, especially when the boy Wojciech (i.e. Daniel) was invited by her to give his hand to these "nice gentlemen", whom the superior invited to tea and some food. Another child was Ruth Noy, daughter of Max and Roza Noy.

From the statement by Max Noy, of May 30, 1987 in New York, we learn how Max, who worked for Germans, came to know Sister Ludwika. She needed some beds, which he was able to give her. She found him even when he worked at Zofiowka, in a hospital for the mentally ill, where the Germans had killed all Poles and Jews alike. In that time his wife and daughter Ruth stayed with a Polish woman, Irka, who however was afraid for her family. Roza and Ruth wandered for some time until he sent to them a Pole, Kobus, who took Ruth to his (Kobus') place in Otwock. The girl became ill with scarlet fever. Max found a Polish doctor, Stanislaw Wieslawski, who gave her medical attention. To show his gratitude Max brought him medical books stolen from the Zofiowka hospital. He and his wife brought their daughter to the Sisters in November 1942, with a certificate from a priest as Teresa Wysocki, on a snowy and cold evening, telling the girl to enter the open door of the home, as she will receive some candy there. The Sisters considered if they could risk their other children, if the girl was Jewish. The superior said "If the child has come to me then I would share her fate ". Ruth remained there for two years. The Noys visited their daughter twice. She was under the care of Sister Anna. Their link with Ruth was still that Polish woman, Irka. The Noys informed the Polish police commissioner that they gave their child to the convent. The latter assured them that in case of trouble his acquaintance, the engineer Szpakowski and his wife would take the child as their own, so that it would not fall in German hands. When Sister Ludwika advised them that the convent will be moved west, because of the Russian advance, they sent Irka again to pick up the girl who from that moment stayed with her parents.

Roza Noy, Ruth's mother wrote in her letter of 1981: "My dear Sister Ludwika, .you are as close to me as a real sister, for who else would have given us so many proofs of self-sacrifice and also have understood our suffering? I well remember when after the war I came to the convent to thank you and I presented you some money. Dear Sister Ludwika, our guardian angel, said then: "Keep the money.But if someone would need help from you, please help them" I've always remembered those words; they were like a sacred commandment to me.Anytime I meet a nun, I thank her with tears in my eyes ".

Still another child, Salome Rybak was found by Mr. Adamowicz, hiding under the stairs of the Jewish boarding school, eating from the barrel of leftovers for pigs. The Sisters took her in until some non-Polish boy wanted to denounce her. Sister Ludwika brought Salome to the convent at Starowce. As Salome had pronounced Jewish features, the Sister bandaged her head for the trip, leaving just one eye free. Sister Ludwika followed the canonical law that the children should not be baptized without the approval of both or at least one of their parents. Sister Gertruda Marciniak, the superior, Sister Anna, Kobus, Irka, and probably Mr. Adamowicz do not seem to be recognized as "Righteous" by Yad Vashem. See: Kurek, op. cit.

MALKIEWICZ, Wladyslaw (not related)
MALKIEWICZ, Hanna, wife

MALYSIAK, Albin, priest, since 1970, bishop

On Sept 13. 1994 the Israeli ambassador in Poland, conferred the medal of "Righteous" in the Museum of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw on bishop Malysiak. The bishop told to the people present: "With Sister Bronislawa Wilemska (q.v.) we followed our conscience guided by our religion which orders us to love our neighbor as ourselves". Both helped five (5) Jews. One of them, Maria Rolicka, was present. On the strength of falsified documents those people were placed in the Helclow House for old and invalid people in Cracow (1943). In the spring of 1944 these five persons were transferred to Szczawnica Zdroj till June 1945. Most of the other patients knew about their origin. . See: An article in the Polish weekly "Gazeta" (Toronto) dated Sept. 14, 1994 and Kaluski, op. cit.

MANASZCZUK, Antonina, i.e. Sister Irena

Sister Irena often had to take Jewish children from Warsaw to her convent at Turkowice, a trip of many hours, with transfers and waiting in crowded stations. The children, frightened, sometimes hysterical, not used to the "Aryan" side, attracted immediate attention either by their looks or by their behavior. For instance, before eating they made the sign of the cross three times (instead of one) or recited Catholic prayers aloud with a Jewish accent. Fortunately some Polish train personnel closed the compartment and pulled down the curtains to hide the children and the nuns from curious eyes. Sometimes a child would cry in Yiddish while asleep. Once safely in the convent, the child had to have proper identification papers and an invented story learned by heart. But when a child came without such documents, the Sisters had to organize them from scratch with the help of surrounding parishes. If a child did not manage to play his "Aryan" role and betrayed his origin, it was necessary to move it to another convent or orphanage. Germans guarded a grain storage facility stationed on the convent grounds. Some of them knew that the sisters kept Jewish children. One of them, a Silesian, told Sister Irena: "If I did not like you, you would already be rotting with your Jewish children in this ditch". But once the Germans arrived and snatched a Jewish girl and shot her. Sister Irena brought from Warsaw a 10 years old girl, Katarzyna Meloch. The girl, now a journalist, stated that she felt there so safe that nothing bad would happen to her as long as the Sisters lived. She did not even yield her way to the Germans, which all Poles were ordered to do. In Turkowice 30 Jewish children
Survived the war. See: Grynberg, op. cit., Kurek, op. cit. and Prekerowa, op. cit.


MANKOWSKI, Bronislaw, (1891-1991), engineer
MANKOWSKI, Janina, (1892-1979) wife
MANKOWSKI, Andrzej, son (1919-)
MANKOWSKI, Jerzy, son (1923-)
MANKOWSKI, Zbigniew (1929-) son, engineer

Bronislaw and Janina, with their three sons resided in Warsaw, where was located the main office of the Starachowice Mining Company, of which Bronislaw was the director. In the second half of 1942 Regina Fern, daughter of the lawyer Marek Fern from Lvov, presented herself to Janina Mankowski, who was looking for a maid. The couple knew that she was Jewish and kept her until the Warsaw Uprising (1944). Regina lost her family in Lvov. Some Poles helped her, among them her teacher Zofia Kotulanka and Janina Malina. The latter gave her the documents of her cousin, Jozefa Malec, without her knowledge. Soon the cousin reclaimed her name and Regina had to change again to Jozefa Nalecz. During the Warsaw Uprising Regina served as a nurse, was taken to the camp of Niederlangen and stayed there till the liberation. Then she moved to Belgium, completed her doctoral studies and married a Pole, a professor of Slavic studies, Marian Pankowski. In 1964 she published in the "Tygodnik Powszechny" in Cracow an account of how she was saved by the Mankowskis, who according to her words treated her as a member of the family. In 1943 during several months the Mankowskis gave refuge also to Irena Fejgin, who after the war moved to Lodz. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MANKOWSKI, Marian (1900-1988) (not related)
MANKOWSKI, Jozefa, wife
MANKOWSKI, Halina, daughter
MANKOWSKI, Marian, son

Marian and Jozefa resided at Lubiczyn, a village in the commune of Krzywowierzba, district Wlodawa. They knew the family of Mosze Kominiarz, his wife Szprynca and their 15 years old daughter Frymka. When in the second half of 1941 Mosze asked Marian, the father, for a shelter, the farmer hesitated at first, but his children prevailed. Marian made a hideout for three people in the haystack, near the dog's house, through which one could penetrate into the hideout and bring food. The Kominiarz family stayed there till the end of the occupation, leaving the hideout only at night. The saved family left for the USA and maintains contacts with the Mankowskis. See: Gryunberg, op. cit.

* MANKOWSKI, Tadeusz (1914-1944) (not related)
MANKOWSKI, Zdzislaw, (1928-) brother

The brothers resided in Warsaw. Tadeusz was a sportsman and knew the Jewish boxer Szapsa Rotholc. In the summer of 1942 Szapsa asked him for shelter for himself, his wife Maria and their 3 years old son Ryszard. They managed to leave the ghetto and to hide with the two brothers. When a Blue policeman found in their apartment only the little boy, the Mankowskis' mother gave him her jewelry and a sizeable sum of money. The brothers took the boy to an acquaintance at Konstancin-Jeziorna, where he spent the rest of the occupation. They transferred the couple Rotholc to a rented flat in Warsaw, where they took in three other Jewish couples whose money helped to maintain the eight Jewish persons. These last three couples went in spring of 1944 to Hotel Polski and were never heard from again. It is a well-known story that the Germans used to promise Jews who would come to the Hotel Polski that they would get their passports to some South American countries and would be allowed to leave. It was a trap. All those who went to that hotel, vanished. In the meantime, Tadeusz Mankowski and his wife went to Miedzylesie to rent an apartment. A woman there denounced them and they were killed. The same woman came with the police to their apartment in Warsaw. Rotholc escaped, but Zdzislaw was beaten up. After the fall of the Warsaw Uprising (1944), Zdzislaw with Rotholc were taken to the Pruszkow camp and from there to Germany. During all this time, Zdzislaw took care that Rotholc be not recognized. The latter went with his son Ryszard, to Belgium and then to Canada. Tadeusz Mankowski, recognized posthumously as "Righteous", was mentioned here already in the list of Those Who Paid with Their Lives. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MARCINEK, Klementyna

MARCINIAK, Franciszek Edward, (1923-) alias LICHWIARZ

As a Lieutenant colonel in the resistance movement, he took part in many actions in defense of the Jews and extricated them from the ghetto, especially children for whom he had already false documents. He hid Nuchim Rozenthal with his wife, Jozef Danzinger and Rywka Zylberbogen. One day surprised in a shop in company of four Jews, by three SS men, he shot one of them and the Jews killed the other two. His superiors, Tadeusz Seidenblutel and Dr. Cezary Ketling-Szemley stated that both knew well about his activity on behalf of the Jews. He cooperated in extricating two physicians from a Stalag (POW camp for soldiers) Dr. Solowiejczyk and Dr. Lajbert, who both survived the war. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MARCINIAK, Stanislawa (1915-) (not related)

Stanislawa resided in Warsaw. She provided food to the families Frajnd and Hiller. In the fall of 1943 she took in a four years old girl, Miriam Rozen, maintaining that she is her own child. The owner of the building knew that the girl was Jewish and systematically raised the rent. After the Warsaw Uprising (1944), both were taken to the Pruszkow camp and then to Konskie. Arthur Frajnd stated in 1963 in Israel that from 1940 Stanislawa helped him, his parents and sisters in the ghetto with food, medicines and other necessities. She also helped Jozef Jasinski, Marian Klinger and Tadeusz Seceski, gravely wounded when escaping the train to Treblinka. The statement underlies that all this was done with entire disinterestedness. See: Grynberg, op. cit.



While helping their nephew, Stanislaw Wypych (q.v.), they gave refuge during almost five years to the Goodfriend couple with their 10 years old son Izaak, and to the Dzialowski family, together nine (9) people, in Piotrkow Trybunalski. In this town, from October 8, 1939, Germans organized the first ghetto, bringing to it Jews from Poznan, Bydgoszcz, Lodz, Wielun, Sieradz and Kalisz, 25 thousand of them, whom they soon transported to concentration camps. In 1942 the ghetto ceased to exist, as all its population was deported. The Marcinkowskis continued to shelter their charges, in spite of the arrest of Stanislaw Wypych for several weeks, accompanied by beatings and threats. Cantor Isaac Goodfriend came from the USA and visited his rescuers after the war.
The couple and their nephew were recognized as Righteous by Yad Vashem on September 12, 1990. Case No. 4642. Their cause was started in 1989.

MARCINKOWSKI, Jozef (1907-1977) (not related)
MARCINKOWSKI, Marianna (1917-) wife

Jozef and Marianna lived in the village of Zukowka, near Sochaczew. Germans transported the Jews from Czerwinsk to Nowy Dwor and from there to Auschwitz. Two days before that, Hanka Zylberberg escaped from Nowy Dwor in December 1942 and wandered four months seeking some shelter. Finally Jozef found her and brought her to his home. She came to them in April 1943 and remained with them for four years till April 1947, when she left for the USA to live with her uncle. Hanka had a particularly great esteem for Marianna, whose courage and determination saved her life. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

* MARCISZCZUK, Jan (1882-1945)
MARCISZCZUK, Anna (1895-1957) wife
MARCISZCZUK, Piotr (1927-) son

The family lived at Szczurowice, Tarnopol prov. Their farm was situated near the forest and had a mill, serving the neighborhood. Jan knew many Jews. On June 23, 1942 German troops occupied Szczurowice. Mendel Friedman with his son Izak and Klara Hart with her six years old son came to the Marciszczuks asking for shelter. The family had to hide them also from the Ukrainians, who tried to kill the Jews and those who sheltered them. In the hideout the Jews had a kerosene lamp. That lamp started a fire, soon engulfing the house and the entire farm buildings. All was lost except some farm animals. The Jews survived the occupation: The Friedmans went to Israel and Klara to the USA. But when news spread about how they were saved, Ukrainian nationalists killed Jan Marciszczuk. Jan Marciszczuk was recognized posthumously as "Righteous". He was mentioned here previously in the list of Those Who Paid with Their Lives. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MARCYNIUK, Teresa, wife
MARCYNIUK, Piotr, son

MARINGE-GROSTAL, Krystyna (1920-)

Krystyna Maringe was deported with her parents, Zofia and Witold, from Poznan to Zuzanka, near Warsaw. Here she came to know Tadeusz Grostal and from that time took care of his family. From 1941 she brought food to the ghetto to his father, Jakub, who died in 1942 in the Treblinka camp. She harbored Tadeusz's mother, Sabina Grostal and his aunt, Justyna Kalina, born Grostal, at Milanowek, near Warsaw. In 1942 she married Tadeusz, then under the name Teodor Hanke and they left for Zakopane, where Tadeusz worked in the city administration. Denounced, he had to leave for Warsaw, got a new name and underwent a plastic operation performed by Dr. Stanislaw-Michalek-Grodzki. Tadeusz survived the war thanks to her care. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MARKIEWICZ, Maria, sister
MARKIEWICZ, Stanislawa, sister

MARKIEWICZ, Szymon (not related)
MARKIEWICZ, Anna, wife

MARKOWSKI, Franciszek, son
MARKOWSKI, Kazimiera, daughter

Rachel Kalisher lived in the small town Sokoly (Bialystok prov.) Her father knew several languages and taught in the Hebrew school. Her parents had a business there. Rachel was 17 years old when the war broke out. Her father escaped to Vilna, which was then a "free town"; her brother also studied there, but soon the Russians took it again. After two years the family was reunited. When the Germans retook it from the Russians, they gathered all Jews in the ghetto; there were three "Aktions" and many Jews were killed. A cousin bribed the Germans and took them to the Bialystok ghetto, supposedly safer. Rachel escaped it and went to a Polish family, the Markowskis, who received her very well. Fortunately Rachel had blond hair and blue eyes. When somebody expressed the supposition that Rachel is Jewish, the smart grandmother, of the Markowskis' family, Salomea Brzozowski, told him that Rachel is a name used among Polish nobility and that she is her godmother. The Markowski family baked bread for many Jews and took care of one who was ill. Rachel wished to go to the forest with a group of young Jews, as her brother was in an underground organization. After a few weeks she decided to return to Bialystok. Helena Markowski tried to dissuade her, but in front of Rachel's determination, she gave her the birth certificate of her daughter, born at Golebie and a holy medal with the image of the Holy Mother, telling her to pray her if case of danger, because she was also Jewish and will surely understand her and save her. Rachel thinks that this holy medal saved her. Helena gave her also some food for the journey. Rachel found a place with a Polish couple and did not betray her Jewisheness in spite of shouting in her sleep in Hebrew, (she explained them that this is English) but she returned to the Bialystok ghetto, where Jews defended themselves. She escaped from it roamed, dying from hunger, with her mother, through fields and forests, as everybody was reluctant to take them in or even give them food, except some crackers, or was plainly ill disposed to Jews, or to any unknown people. Her father was shot in a small Lithuanian town and her brother was killed too. Rachel went to Israel in 1948, married and lived in a kibutz. She found the Markowskis and sent them parcels and medicine. She also found work for a granddaughter of Salomea Brzozowski. Helena died. One of their daughters lives in Golebie, and a son in the town Lapy, near Bialystok. Helena Markowski with her son and daughter were recognized as "Righteous" in 1990. In the Yad Vashem list of 1999 Helena is shown as the daughter, which according to this account she was the mother of Franciszek and Kazimiera. See: Isakiewicz, op. cit.

MARKOWSKI, Stefania (not related)
MARKOWSKI, Franciszek, son
MARKOWSKI, Stanislaw, son
MAROSZEK, Maria see WYSOCKI, Mikolaj & Anna, parents

MARTINEK, Halina, wife

The couple lived in Grodno (now Belorussia). The Germans either killed on the spot or deported to Auschwitz ca. 25.000 Jews from Grodno and surrounding towns. The 13 years old Irena G. managed to escape the transport and came to the Martineks who had befriended her parents before the war. She stayed with them for six months, after which time the Martineks dispatched her under the care of a friendly railway man to her father, Karol G. in Warsaw. Both father and daughter survived the war. Grodno Jews, like Mrs. Segal and her small son, also benefited from the Martineks' help. Halina bribed with 20,000 rubles a Gestapo man in order to get the freedom for her husband's friend. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MARTYKOWICZ, Irena, wife? sister?
MARUCZYNSKI, Wlodzimierz
MARYNOWSKI, Wladyslawa


Janina was a nurse living with her parents in Bialystok. Sara Rubin, another nurse from Warsaw, escaped to Bialystok. Working with her in the same hospital, Janina proposed that Sara live in her apartment, denying to all that her companion is Jewish. Sara remained with her till the end of the war. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MASTELARZ, Jadwiga, wife
MATJAS, Franciszek
MATJAS, Jozefa, wife
MATLAK, Jozefa, wife
MATLAK, Ludwika, daughter
MATLAK, Magdalena, Jozef's sister
MATOGA, Zygmunt
MATRAS, Stanislaw
MATRAS, Regina, wife
MATUL, Ignacy

MATULEWICZ, Helena, wife

Mary Gerstein and her husband David spent two years in the Vilna ghetto. She was a seamstress and he a wood merchant, working in the woods for the Germans. Guta Baran, widow of Elia, who fought in the underground, and their son Wlodek, were hid on the estate of Bronislaw Krzyzanowski (q.v.) as a French teacher, but returned to the ghetto two weeks before their escape. The four people fled the ghetto to a place to which Bronislaw gave a key to Guta. Bronislaw brought them food there and with a Polish woman, Tania, both members of the underground, escorted them out of the town, telling them that if they would encounter guards they would dispatch them with their pistols. They found Stanislaw waiting for them with a horse cart. He took them to his shack, so poor that only half of it was furnished. He prepared a place in the attic and later, fearing the many partisans, in a dugout under that shack. To give them food twice a day the Matulewicz couple had to order their two small daughters out of the house. Although the elder, Halinka, seven years old, suspected that somebody was in the house, she kept silent. It was Stanislaw who brought them food and on Sunday, after church, a German paper, what was very risky, as he was unable to read. In July 1944 the Russians overran the country. When the Gersteins returned to Vilna they learned that their daughter perished, caught by the Gestapo, but found several persons of their family still living. They moved to Lodz, and then went to Italy and to Israel, where Guta Baran also moved with her new husband and two sons. The Gersteins came to Canada, where they reestablished contact with Krzyzanowski. Yad Vashem recognized the Matulewicz couple as "Righteous" on Feb. 22, 1989. Case No. 4082, started in 1986.

MATUS, Jerzy, Dr.

Jerzy, activist in the popular movement "Wici", was in the executive of the Zegota branch in Cracow. He specialized in the massive forging of false documents for Jews. His wife Barbara remembers that in order to make them appear old and used, they gave them for an hour or two to their children to play, paying attention only to not let them tear them. Jerzy found also many shelters for Jews in the countryside. See: Prekerowa, op. cit.

MATUSIEWICZ, Paulina, wife
MATUSIEWICZ, Emilia, daughter
MATUSZ, Stanislaw
MATUSZ, Katarzyna, wife

MATUSZAK, Katarzyna (1896-1980)
MATUSZAK-GUZIK, Krystyna (1925-1965) daughter
MATUSZAK-WASILEWSKI, Maria (1928-) daughter

Katarzyna lived with her two daughters in Przemysl where she ran a grocery store, near the ghetto. Jews who worked outside the ghetto during the day often received foodstuff from them and some bread for the children. Once came to her Rachela Genussor and remained with the Matuszaks for many months. On the strength of the birth certificate of one of the Matuszak's daughters she left for work in Germany and later went to Israel. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MATUSZEWSKI, Stefania, wife

MATUSZEWSKI, Jozef (not related)
MATUSZEWSKI, Jozef's wife

Jozef and his wife, together with their daughter, Jadwiga and son-in-law, Stefan Lubraczynski, harbored and encouraged Arnold Karpf, who escaped from the Warsaw ghetto on Nov. 12, 1942. Before them he was hid and taken care of by the engineer Boleslaw Januszko, who awaited him when he managed to leave the ghetto, rented a room for him and provided him with food. Arnold described in glowing terms the help and understanding given him by all the people named above. The engineer Januszko, nor Jadwiga and Stefan Lubraczynski do not seem to be recognized as "Righteous" up to 1999. See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit.

MATUSZEWSKI, Ryszard (not related)
MATWISZYN, Katarzyna

MATYSEK-ZERYKIER, Marianna (1903-)

Marianna came from the village Ogrodzieniec (Katowice prov.) Between the two wars she was a nurse to the child of the Zerykiers at Zawiercie. When the child died in 1938, she remained with the Zerykiers as a maid. In 1940 a daughter Danuta, was born. When Germans started to liquidate the ghetto in July 1943, Marianna took the child from the ghetto to her own one room apartment. Eliasz and Hudes Zerykier were deported to Auschwitz. Only Marianna's mother and brother knew that she hid a Jewish child. The mother of the child perished, but the father returned and married Marianna. Danuta is now a known physician in Upper Silesia. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MATYSIAK, Wladyslaw

MAZAK, Stanislaw, priest

The priest Mazak was in the parish of Szczurowice (Tarnopol prov.) He helped Jews and encouraged his parishioners to extend aid to them. When a honest German, by the name of Walter, warned Dr. Weksler, a physician, that the next day he and his family will be shot, the doctor went for help to the priest. The latter drove the doctor and his wife to Cracow, but he took their child to Warsaw himself, placing it somewhere with false documents. He provided also false documents to the mother of the child and helped her to go to work in Germany. Mother and daughter survived the war, but Dr. Weksler perished in the Warsaw Uprising (1944). When the Germans interrogated the priest, the same Walter helped him, telling him that he also is a Catholic. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MAZARSKI, Eugeniusz, son
MAZARSKI, Rudolf, son
MAZIAK, Antoni

MAZUR, Jan (1911-)
MAZUR, Helena, wife

The Mazur couple and their son Stefan lived in Cracow. During the war the parents worked in a garment factory directed by an Austrian, Julius Madritsch.
They, especially Stefan, helped many Jews, who in the number of 250 were brought there to work from the ghetto and from the Plaszow camp. Helena Hochberg and Edward Kleinman stated in 1986 that Jan Mazur, bringing to the ghetto raw materials and taking from them the finished products, brought food, hidden underneath even arms, for those who wanted to join the partisans. Helena hid many Jewish women, who managed to flee the ghetto. Stefan, their son, does not seem to be recognized up to 1999. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MAZUR, Jan (another one, not related)
MAZUR, Wiktoria, wife
MAZUR, Jozef, son

MAZUR, Michal (1915-) (not related)

Michal, a horse driver, lived in a forester's lodge, near Rudka, Rzeszow prov. 3,000 Jews, rounded up in the ghetto at Sieniawa, were soon shot in the forest in 1942. But two brothers, who escaped that massacre, Lejzor and Rubin Braten, came to Michal, as they knew him from before the war. He put them in the loft above the stable and soon introduced into this secret Helena Szelewa-Kurasiewicz (q.v.) who worked there. Both took care of the two brothers till the end of the occupation. The Bratens stated in 1984 that Helena and Michal saved their life out of pure humanitarian attitude, without any compensation. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MAZUR, Stanislaw (1914-1989) (not related)
MAZUR, Krystyna (1912-) wife

This couple was particularly meritorious in saving Jews. Around 30 people benefited from their help, and 19 of them survived the occupation. Some of them were: Irena Bieberstein with her two sons, Boguslaw Edelman, with his wife and son, Edward Cukier with his wife, Jerzy Gelbard with his wife and mother, Bronislaw Glas with his wife, Jadwiga Krzemieniecki, Lautenberg with his daughter, Teofila Lewenfisz, Stefania Morgenstern with her daughter Zofia, and Hanna Sigalin with her daughter Krystyna. Before the war the Mazurs lived in the village Repki, Sokolow district and Stanislaw studied at the Warsaw University. He opposed the students' anti-Jewish outbursts. He and his wife worked in a Jewish company of Gelbard and Sigalin. Stanislaw did not wait to be asked for help; he looked for people who might need it. Among many others he tried to save Dr. Janusz Korczak, but the old doctor refused his help categorically. As a worker for the Leszczynski Company, active in the ghetto, Stanislaw had a pass to the ghetto. First he extracted from it Jerzy Gelbard, his wife Izabela, and Irena Morgenstern with her 11 years old daughter. He put up Izabela at the smith Czajka, in the estate of Dobrzyniec, near Minsk Mazowiecki, where she wrote many beautiful poems on the ghetto. When the owner found out that she was a Jewess, he ordered her to leave. But Stanislaw convinced him to relent and Izabela remained there till the war's end. In their apartment they concealed among others, Marta Chmielnicki with her husband Natan. The imprudence of the latter brought two gendarmes who luckily took a bribe and Stanislaw had to find new accommodation for the couple. At the height of the deportations from the ghetto (July - September 1942), Stanislaw persuaded Leszczynski to extract from the throng driven to the Umschlagplatz, (train station to Treblinka) Hanna Sigalin and her daughter Krysia. The next day he drove Hanna out of the ghetto. Krysia managed to leave the ghetto and remained till the end of the war under the care of her old nurse. Mother and child left for Sweden. Stanislaw took into his flat also Teofila Lewenfisz-Wojnarowski as a nurse to his child. Teofila wrote in April 1983 that among many Poles who helped Jews, the care, the heart and the understanding of the Mazurs were for them like an organization in themselves. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MAZUR, Stefan (not related)

MAZUREK, Maria, wife
MAZUREK, Stanislaw (1908-)
Stanislaw lived in Warsaw, in the apartment of Stanislaw Patek (1866-1944), ex Minister of Foreign Affairs, ambassador and senator, whom he served as secretary. His boss instructed him to bring food and money to his friends, among others to the known Jewish advocate, Leon Berenson (1882-1941). In his flat Stanislaw offered refuge to Maryla Debow, whom he extricated from the ghetto and to the advocate Milet, who asked for his help. He placed Milet's wife and child with his cousin Wanda Lisowski. Unfortunately, Milet went to the Hotel Polski (a German trap for Jews) and met the same fate as all the others (he was killed in spite of promises of South American passports). Patek and Wanda Lisowski are not recognized as "Righteous" up to now. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
MAZURKIEWICZ, Helena (the three are not related among them)

MAZURKIEWICZ, Leon (not related)
MAZURKIEWICZ, Genowefa, wife
MACZAK, Witold
MADRY, Jozef

MEDWIT, Jan (1909-)
MEDWIT, Maria, wife
The Medwit couple lived in Przemysl. Jan worked in the housing administration, in which there worked also a Jew, Adolf Gruft. Adolf asked Jan to hide his 7 years old daughter, Stella. She spent the war at the Medwits' house, hiding behind a cupboard in case some strangers appeared, except for two weeks when she was hidden in the Greek-Catholic monastery in Przemysl, under the care of the rector Wasyl Hrynka. In 1945 her father's brother retrieved her and took her with him. Stella lives in Israel and remains in contact with Jan Medwit. See: Grynberg, op.cit.

MEDYNSKI, Michalina
MEDYNSKI, Kazimierz, son
MEDYNSKI, Wanda, daughter
MEGLICKI, Konstanty
MEGLICKI, Zofia,wife
MEGLICKI, Zdzislaw, son
MELLER, Eugenia, wife
MELLER-KRZYSZTOW, Helena, daughter?
MELLER-WOZNIAK, Stefania , daughter?
MENCIK, Stanislawa, wife
MERSON, Miroslawa, wife

MIANOWSKI, Aleksandra, Dr.
Aleksandra, a member of the Zegota branch in Cracow, like all others, searched for shelters for Jews. In this activity distinguished themselves also Feliks Dziuba, Helena Wojcik (q.v.) Stefan Kaminski and Lucja Kobylinski. The Gestapo arrested Lucja. See: Prekerowa, op. cit. Dziuba, Kaminski and Kobylinski are not recognized as "Righteous". See: Prekerowa, op. cit.
MIARCZYNSKI, Wladyslawa (1916-)
Wladyslawa lived with her husband Dominik Wajda in Cracow, where she worked in the theatre, Dominik at the post office. During the occupation the couple and her mother hid Lotti Rosencwejg, who escaped from the Plaszow camp. Lotti stated already in 1961 that to all three she owes her life and gratitude to the end of her days. Wladyslawa's husband and mother are not recognized. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MIAZGOWICZ, Marta, wife
MIAZIO, Emilia, (sister of Aleksandra Marcinkiewicz)
MICHALAK, Marianna, wife
MICHALAK, Wladyslaw, son
MICHALAK, Janina (not related)
Janina lived in Warsaw and worked in a food shop. She befriended a Jewish girl, Krystyna Wajshof, who stayed on the "Aryan" side under false identification. Each time the latter was in a quandary, Janina helped her. One day two young men conducted Krystyna to the police post. Janina, informed about that, was able to free her and the police report was destroyed. Another time she took part in gathering the money necessary to bribe people who went after Krystyna, giving up her gold ring. Both girls took part in the Warsaw Uprising (1944) and survived the occupation. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MICHALAK, Wladyslaw (1912-) (not related)
MICHALAK, Marianna (1914-)
They were farmers at Zasiadki, near Miedzyrzec Podlaski. The Germans deported to Treblinka or killed on the spot ca. 17,000 Jews from that town. Among them was Cypa Bekerman. Her husband, Mojzesz and his two sons, Szmul-Leib and Fajwel, escaped death by coming to the Michalaks. They arranged a shelter in the barn, in which the fugitives spent almost two years. Fajwel, who lived then at Dzierzoniow, signed already in 1950, an official document relating their story and expressing his gratitude for a completely disinterested help. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MICHALEWSKI-DUDZIAK, Wanda (not related) see DUDZIAK, Tekla, mother
MICHALIK, Boleslaw (1904-)
MICHALIK, Boleslaw's wife
The couple lived in the village of Ulanow, Skierniewice prov., with their son and daughter. At the time of the transfer of the Skierniewice Jews to the Warsaw ghetto, Fejga Srebrny-Kamien and her daughter Maria Sebrien, came to the Michaliks for shelter and remained with them till the coming of the Russians. Boleslaw built for them under the barn, near the pigsty, a small bunker, which they left at night to stay in the attic or even in the kitchen, unless the children, being on the lookout, warned, "Germans arrive". In a nearby village the Germans executed six Jews and two Poles who harbored them. In 1967 the two women sent from Paris a statement telling how Boleslaw saw the massacre in that village and told them, on his return that nonetheless they can remain with him, showing true heroism. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MICHALSKI, Antoni (not related)
MICHALSKI, Helena, wife
MICHALSKI, Piotr Franciszek (not related)
MICHALEK, Ferdynand
MICHEJDA, Kornel, physician
MICKIEWICZ, Maria, wife
MICKIEWICZ, Wladylaw, son
MICZYNSKI, Kazimiera
MIDAK, Edward (Edmund?)
MIECZYNSKI-ZLOTECKI, Aniela see ZLOTECKI, Jan and Katarzyna, parents?
MIELCZAREK, Rozalia, sister?
MIELCZAREK-BRUST, Henryka (not related) see BRUST, Henryk & Aniela, parents?

MIELCZAREK, Zygmunt (not related)
MIELCZAREK, Henryka, wife
MIERZEJEWSKI, Janina, wife
MIGDEN, Apolonia see RZEPECKI, Stanislaw, husband
MIKA, Teofil
MIKA, Katarzyna, wife

MIKITOW, Jozef (1907-)
MIKITOW, Olga, wife
The Mikitows lived in Tarnopol and helped eleven Jews to survive. First, Jozef provided food to the ghetto for compensation, in the cart serving to take out the waste, driven by Froim Lubianker. Froim and Dawid Spelzer, escaped from the ghetto and after some bad experiences with other Poles, came to the Mikitows with their families. Similarly, Karol Aszkenazy and Aleksander Rozencwajg, came also to the Mikitows. Already in 1949 those saved by the Mikitows stated that Jozef and Olga sheltered and fed them from 1943 through 1944, without any compensation, in spite of being in straits themselves. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MIKLASZEWSKI, Wladyslawa, daughter
MIKLASZEWSKI-SKROCZYNSKI, Maria (not related) see SKROCZYNSKI, Wilhelmina, mother
MIKOLAJCZYK, Stefan, son

MIKOLAJKOW, Aleksander (1901-1944) physician
MIKOLAJKOW, Leokadia (1905-) wife, nurse
MIKOLAJKOW, Andrzej. son
MIKOLAJKOW, Leszek, son

The couple resided in Debica, Rzeszow Prov., with their two sons. Next to them was stationed the Gestapo and the German police. Opposite was the gate to the local ghetto. The doctor with the help of his wife, Lekadia, a registered nurse, had to examine all the Jewish workers forced to work for the Germans. When he found one of them, a young Jewish boy, Efraim Reich, too weak to work, and so destined to be eliminated as not useful, he hired him as an errand boy. In the fall of 1942 Leokadia informed the boy that all Jews would be liquidated and gave him the key to her home, to bring there as many people as possible to hide in the garage and the in the office garret. Efraim smuggled eleven (11) people, of his family, who one by one passed from the ghetto to the Mikolajkows' house. At nighttime, when the tenant and the maid were asleep, the doctor or his wife brought them food and emptied the bucket used as a toilet, never complaining, according to Efraim's words. After the "Aktion" (roundup of Jews or Poles) in which 5000 out of 8000 Jews were killed, the Reichs returned to the ghetto so as not to endanger the Mikolajkows. Soon the doctor sent a note to the Reichs, telling them to return immediately. Leokadia sent to the ghetto her son with the key, which Efraim forgot. All eleven did, plus a cousin and a child of three, thirteen (13) altogether. For nine months they stayed in an unused basement behind the garage, which flooded when it rained. In December 1943 the criminal police came, demanding the key to the garage immediately. Leokadia tried to gain time conversing with the German in a loud voice, so that the Jews could hide themselves in the shelter prepared before under the garage. The thirteen tiptoed across the garden that screened the doctor's office from the Gestapo station across the street back to the attic and the same day the doctor conducted them to Mr. Kunysz, an 80-year old man. They remained there till the Red Army's arrival. When one of the women died, they buried her at night in the yard. Once a Gestapo man during one of their several searches, was about to ascend the ladder to the attic, but fortunately a noise distracted him. Beside them the couple helped thirty (30) other Jews with food, garments, medicine and false documents. A stray bullet killed the doctor on the last day of the German occupation when he was helping a wounded partisan. Efraim, now a rabbi, tells: "Every year I remember the day he died. I believe in life after death. I believe he is one of the great people up there." Leokadia's motivation was mainly religious. "The Ten Commandments were meant for all mankind. They were not something to be applied just to one's own kind. And that is how I brought up my children" she said at a reunion with the survivors in Brooklyn, New York. See: Paldiel, op. cit. and Lukas, Out of the Inferno, op. cit.


MIKULSKI, Melania, wife
MIKULSKI-RENK, Danuta, daughter?
MIKULSKI-SALATA, Jadwiga, daughter?

MIKULSKI, Maria (not related)
MIKULKO, Michalina
MIKULKO-TYCHON, Maria, daughter
MIKUSZ-DOBRUCKI, Ewa Maria see DOBRUCKI, Andrzej & Aniela, parents?

MILCZARSKI, Zbigniew (1919-)

Zbigniew lived in Warsaw. He took part in the September 1939 campaign; taken prisoner of war, he escaped and returned to Warsaw. He was a member of the AK (Home Army) and took part in the Warsaw Uprising (1944). At the beginning of 1944 he took into his apartment John Fields, who before was hidden by Zofia Nowakowski (q.v.) The Gestapo arrested her. John Fields went to Canada. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MILEWSKI, Aleksander
MILEWSKI, Jadwiga, wife

MILLER, Stefan
MILLER, Marcela, wife

Stefan worked in Warsaw in an auto repair company under German administration, which employed 650 workers, among them 40 Jews from the ghetto.
Stefan brought underground publications to some of them. Leon Najberg, one of the Jews who read them, entered the ghetto in April 1943 and did not return from it until September 1943. He found Miller who took care of him, but could not take him into his apartment, as he sheltered in it already two Jews, brothers, from Lvov. After a prolonged search he placed him with Aleksander and Antonina Szczypiorski (q.v.) Leon Najberg wrote an extensive diary of the last battles of the ghetto. He settled in Israel. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MILONAS, Grzegorz -

Grzegorz helped the Steger brothers to hide with various Polish
families. He was honored on Dec. 15, 1999 in Warsaw, as announced the Israeli Embassy in Poland.
MILKOWSKI, Bronislawa, wife
MILKOWSKI, Leontyna, daughter
MILKOWSKI, Lucjan, son
MILKOWSKI-WISLOCKI, Maria, daughter?
MILKOWSKI, Wladyslaw, son


Kazimierz helped several Jewish women to leave for work in Germany. He was honored on Dec. 15, 1999 in Warsaw, according to an announcement by the Israeli Embassy in Poland.

MILOSZ, Andrzej
MILOSZ, Czeslaw, brother

Czeslaw Milosz, the renowned poet and Nobel Laureate, wrote a poem "Il Campo dei Fiori" published in a booklet of poems in 1944, entitled "From the Abyss".
A considerable number of the 3,000 copies printed were distributed before the 1st anniversary of the Ghetto Uprising (April 1943). Other Jewish and Polish poets authored the 11 poems: Mieczyslaw Jastrun, Michal Maksymilian Borwicz-Boruchowicz, Jan Kott, and Tadeusz Sarnecki. The microfilm of that anthology drew a considerable response abroad. The paper "Nasza Trybuna" in New York published first some and later all of those poems under the title "Poezja Getta", (Ghetto poetry) ilustrated by Zygmunt Menkes and translated into Hebrew by Beniamin Tennenbaum. See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, also Prekerowa, op. cit.


* MINIEWSKI, Stefan (-1944)
MINIEWSKI, Jan (1929-) son

They lived in the village of Smarzow, Tarnopol prov. They knew many Jews in the nearby town of Szczurowice. Jews fleeing from deportation to camps hid in the forest and often benefited of the Miniewskis' help. Izak Parnas and Izak Szterling asked them for shelter. They built it so well that the two fugitives remained there till the end of the occupation. The Miniewskis did it partly inspired by the example of the priest Mazak (q.v.). After the war Ukrainian nationalist killed Stefan for saving Jews. The rest of the family left the village. Posthumously recognized as "Righteous", Stefan is mentioned here before in the list of Those Who Paid with Their Lives. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MIRECKI, Aleksander
MIRECKI, Wladyslawa, wife
MIREK, Aniela, wife
MIRKOWSKI, Aniela see DOROTA, Antoni, father
MIRONIUK, Julianna
MIRONIUK-PASNIK, Anna, daughter
MIRONIUK, Jozef, son
MIRONIUK, Marianna, daughter
MIRONIUK, Stanislawa, daughter
MIROSLAW-TKACZYK, Genowefa see TKACZYK, Jozef, brother

MISIEWICZ, Rozalina (1905-) wife
MISIEWICZ-ZWOLICKI, Janina, daughter (missing from the 1999 List, but is in Grynberg, op. cit.)

The family resided in Tarnopol. In April 1943 the Germans killed there several thousands Jews and in June liquidated the ghetto. Their acquaintance from before the war, Dawid Bien, came at night and asked them to hide his daughter, Lunia. The Misiewicz couple acquiesced and organized false papers for the girl. A few months later there came to them also the parents of the girl, Dawid and Fanna Bien and Lora, their other daughter. All spent the rest of the occupation in an underground hideout, being provided with food and necessities. After the war the Biens went to Canada. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MISIEWICZ, Jan (not related)

Jan, in the village of Mikulence (Eastern Poland) saved single-handedly a family of five, with a friend, Michal Ogorek (not recognized up to the end of 1999) another family of four and two single Jews, of whom one was Rabbi Leon M. Kahane. In 1942, roaming the forest with his brother, the future Rabbi sought food and shelter. He hid at Jan's place the night following Yom Kippur, as the Ukrainian police searched for Jews. His brother went elsewhere, was caught and killed. The Rabbi, leader of the Temple Menorah of Redondo Beach in California, told a crowd of 200 people gathered at Simon Wiesenthal Center in Los Angeles: -"Jan Misiewicz was an angel; he gave us warmth and encouragement."- and breaking into tears, he added: "I can never truly thank him for all his kindness, goodness and compassion. Every day he brought us food and took our waste away."- He related how Jan saved 11 Jews, including a 2-year old, on the premises of a Roman Catholic Church. Jan, aged 63, who was reunited at that ceremony with the people he had saved 41 years after that memorable night, told the gathering: "I consulted with my family and especially with my father to ask if they minded keeping Jewish people. I remember my father telling me that it was the proper thing to do." The Center's director, Dr. Gerald Margulis, presented Jan with a scroll of "Righteous Conduct". See: the article in "The Jewish Week" (probably of 1983)

MISIUNA, Wladyslaw (1925-) scholar

Wladyslaw lived with his family in Radom and was friendly with many Jews already since his high school years, opposing the anti-Semitism of some of his colleagues. As a 17 years old, he tried to help them mostly by providing them with food. He saved more than ten (10) Jewish girls, who had been brought to work in a rabbit-farm established by the Germans to produce skins for the troops on the Russian front. As the foreman in charge of the vegetable garden to feed the rabbits, Wladyslaw allowed the girls to eat from that supply and bought for them bread and milk. When one of the girls became infected, which exposed her to be killed immediately, and as the ointment he bought for her did not help, he let himself to become infected and got from the camp doctor the medicine for himself and that girl. Once he ordered all the girls to boil their clothing, as sanitation was dreadful. When the German officer found out about that, he put Wladyslaw and the girls against the wall to be shot. Wladyslaw protested: "Don't you believe in cleanliness and hygiene?" After moments of silence the officer shouted: " Well, then, stay alive - you and your cursed Jewesses!" Wladyslaw kept up the spirit of the girls, because as he served at the same time in the Polish underground, he brought them good news from the world. Already at that time he wrote poetry about their suffering. In 1988 people whom he helped invited Prof. Misiuna to Israel. One of his poems reads in translation like this: The words of the Talmud engraved on the medal. "He who saved one life, saved the entire world" are beautiful but they do not assuage the pain. The world did not end in spite of million of Jewish losses. I know better than most the Jewish martyrdom, as I suffered with them during the Shoah and I felt their torment like a Jew. Saving them, I saved my human dignity. I feared less for my life than the loss of my humanity. See: Bauminger: Righteous among the Nations, op. cit. and also Grynberg, op. cit.

MISZTAL, Janina, wife
MISZTAL, Tadeusz, son

MISZTAL, Wincenty (not related)
MISZTAL, Jozefa, wife
MISZTAL, Stanislaw, son

MISZTAL, Zygmunt Marian (not related)
MIS, Wladyslaw
MISKIEWICZ, Katarzyna, wife

MISKIEWICZ, Nikodem (not related)
MISKIEWICZ, Zofia, wife

MITREGA, Antoni, educator
MITREGA, Stanislawa, wife

The couple lived with their children in Lvov. Antoni had known Jews since his childhood. In the fall of 1941 he rented one room to Stefania Trojnarski with two small boys. At the beginning the Mitregas did not realize that they were Jews, but when they did, they nevertheless kept the mother and her children. Antoni registered the older boy in the schoolbook and gave him the school certificate. The couple harbored also a Jewish girl, Pola, giving her the birth certificate of Stanislawa's sister. In 1946 Stefania Trojnarski visited her benefactors in Stargard Szczecinski, where the Mitregas moved after the war, to thank them again. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MLODAWSKI-SOCHA, Zofia see SOCHA, Jozef & Agnieszka parents

MLYNARCZYK, Natalia (not related)
MODZELEWSKI, Slawomir, son


Anna, a bank employee in Warsaw, hid Jewish girls at Podkowa Lesna and visited them regularly. When this place became unsafe, she moved them elsewhere. See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit.

MOLDRZYK, Gertruda, wife
MOMOTIUK, Aleksander
MOMOTIUK, Aniela, wife
MONKO, Katarzyna
MONKO, Mieczyslaw, son?
MONKO, Aniela, Mieczyslaw's wife
MORAWSKI, Antonina

MORAWSKI, Zenon (not related)
MORAWSKI, Maria, wife
MOROZOWSKI, Olga, wife

MORYSON, Leokadia, wife

MOSKALIK, Krystyna

Krystyna was a teacher in Sieciechowice and a member of Zegota who with her brother Witold, and their father, Antoni, co-operated in saving Jews, harboring a number of them: Rose Kfare, Zina Paduch, Helena Szumanski, and Helena Erlich. Krystyna and her brother worked closely with Ada Prochnicka, a renowned courier between the Cracow branch of the Council and the Lvov ghetto. The Gestapo killed her on one of these frequent missions. Krystyna found a shelter among others for Dr. Zina Paduch and her daughter Tecia Werbowski. She placed Dr. Paduch, fluent in French and German, at the Celiny estate of Mieczyslaw Glebocki, as a French governess for his children. She put up Tecia, then a year old baby, nearby, with teachers, Eugeniusz Mroz and his wife, who had two daughters Jadwiga and Teresa. The French governess visited the child who did not know that she was her mother. Tecia, co-author of the book "Zegota", was told by her mother that they are Jewish only when she was 15. The Mrozes never spoke with her about that, out of prudence first and out of sheer tact and consideration later. Similarly Mieczyslaw Glebocki told a Polish trainee at the estate, Jozef Ursyn-Niemcewicz, to quell all the talk among the employees of the estate about the governess. "I have children too". For a Pole it was crystal clear. Ada Prochnicka smuggled from Lvov a 12 years old girl, Rose Kfare, to Krystyna, who kept her for 3 years and became very attached to her. When the man loved by Krystyna was killed, she was devastated but did not lose time on mourning, as other lives were dependent on her. She did not tell Rose that her parents had been killed in Lvov. Krystyna brought Rose to Cracow to continue her education and found her relatives in the USA. She visited Rose there in 1964 and died a year later. After 20 years steps were undertaken to bring about her recognition. She was recognized as "Righteous" on June 6, 1989. Case No. 4268. Her cause was started in 1985. Tecia submitted a proper statement at the Israeli Consulate about the Mrozes in 1997. See: Tomaszewski, Irena and Werbowski, Tecia: "Zegota, The Rescue of Jews in Wartime Poland" [Montreal, Price-Patterson, 1994] (171 pp. illus.) and the mention in Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit. See also Tecia's account in the monthly "Chatelaine", December 1994, pp. 91 and 114) under the title: "Debt of Life". The Mrozes and the Glebockis were not recognized as Righteous"up to the end of 1999.

MOSSICZY, Prof.'s wife
MOTYLEWSKI-AUGUSTYNIAK Janina see AUGUSTYNIAK, Erazm & Kazimiera, parents?
MOUCZKA, Genowefa, wife
MOUCZKA, Kazimierz, son
MOWCZAN, Eugenia

MOZDZIERZ, Kazimierz (1908-)
MOZDZIERZ, Helena (1923-) sister

Kazimierz and his family lived in Lvov. During his studies at the Arts Academy he met Elzbieta Landau. In August 1942 Germans deported from Lvov ca. 50,000 Jews to the Belzec extermination camp. Kazimierz took Elzbieta and her mother to Warsaw, and helped them to rent an apartment. They survived the war and in 1948 went to Israel. With the consent of his sister, he also gave her birth certificate to another colleague from the University, Jala Mejsels, who was thus able to go to Germany to work and after the war settled in the USA. In 1987 Elzbieta and Jala asked Yad Vashem to find Kazimierz. The Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw found him. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MROCZEK, Wladyslawa, wife

MROCZKOWSKI, Franciszek (-1967)
MROCZKOWSKI, Stefania (1908-) wife, born KALISZ

Franciszek and Stefania lived at Hrubieszow, Lublin prov. In October 1942 Elzbieta Heinberg escaped from the transport to the Belzec concentration camp and roaming the country, met Jozef Kalisz. He brought her to his sister, Stefania. The Mroczkowskis arranged a hiding place for her, but to avoid frequent searches by the Germans, they took her to Franciszek's cousins in the country and later to their cousins in Chelm Lubelski, where she stayed till the occupation's end. Elzbieta left Poland in 1967 and settled in Canada. She maintains contacts with Stefania. Jozef is not recognized. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MROZOWSKI, Jan (1912-1945)
MROZOWSKI, Halina (1916-), wife

The couple lived in Warsaw. Halina Lewkowicz and her son Ryszard escaped from the ghetto at Zawiercie before its liquidation. As a liaison-officer of the Polish underground, she was helped to reach Warsaw and make contact with the Mrozowskis. Halina Mrozowski organized false documents for both of them, placed Halina with her brother as a nurse and kept the boy herself. In 1943 Halina Lewkowicz started to work in the convent of the Elizabethan sisters, where she was a liaison officer and during the Warsaw Uprising (1944) nursed the wounded. After the Uprising, Halina Mrozowski and Ryszard found themselves at the Pruszkow camp and she placed the boy, for security sake, in an orphanage. Both Halinas survived. In 1986 Halina Lewkowicz made a statement about the disinterested help of Halina Mrozowski. The latter for a long time refused to be presented to Yad Vashem for recognition, as she thought that she had only done her duty, but finally she agreed. Jan, member of the AK, was taken during the Warsaw Uprising to the Flossenburg concentration camp, to Ravensbruck and again to Flossenburg, where he died in March 1945. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MROZEK, Stanislaw
MROZEK, Waleria, wife
MROZEK, Daniela, daughter

The Mrozeks in Czestochowa, having besides Daniela two younger children, Zenon and Elzbieta, rescued several Jewish people. In 1941 fled from the ghetto Anna W. with her 15 years old son Artur, and Anna's sister, Irma Z. with her 12 years old son, Marcel. They hid for a certain time with the Mrozeks, where another Jewish woman, W. K., was also hidden. After a sojourn in Warsaw, where Irma perished, and where they lost all their resources, they returned to the Mrozeks. Artur, using false documents, soon went to Germany to work. From February 1942 till the occupation by the Red Army of Czestochowa, the Mrozeks had with them Anna, Marcel and Wanda. As the two women did not have any money or valuables left, the Mrozeks shared with the three all they had. Artur W. went to Israel and became an advocate and notary and made his deposition to Yad Vashem in 1986. Marcel is a physician in the USA. Yad Vashem recognized the three Mrozeks as "Righteous" on Jan. 29, 1992. Case No. 5050. Their cause was started in 1990.

MROZ, Maria (1882-1951)
MROZ-KRZESZOWSKI, Jozefa, (1914-) daughter

Mother and daughter farmed at Popielarnia, near Janow Lubelski. They knew many Jews. At the beginning of 1942 Germans deported Jews to extermination camps. Mosze Mandelker, his daughter Hendla, son Arie and Cyria Goldstein came to Maria asking for help. All survived the war. Mosze with his daughter went to Israel, Arie to the USA and Cyrla to France. Jozefa wrote that she did it for humanitarian and religious reasons, to have a quiet conscience as a human being and as a Christian. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MROZ, Stanislaw (1910-1943) (not related)
MROZ, Janina (1915-1952) wife

The couple lived with their three children in the village Blazeje, near Losice, Siedlce prov. Kochba Tzur, coming from Lodz, fled from the Losice ghetto from which Germans deported all Jews to the Treblinka extermination camp. She was hidden with various farmers, but for most of the time she remained with the Mrozes. After the war she went to Israel. In 1987 she visited Blazeje, but did not find the elder Mrozes alive, just their children. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MUCHOWSKI, Wladyslaw

Zygmunt was a businnessman at Dziewule, Siedlce Prov. At the end of 1941 his brother, Boleslaw, visted him in company of a young woman, Rozalia Werdinger from Drohobycz. Zygmunt arranged with a priest a birth certificate of a deceased person, on the base of which he got a "Kennekarte". Rozalia survived and married Zygmunt. He also got out of the Warsaw ghetto the fiancée of Szmul - resident of Lukow - and brought her to that town. See: Grynberg, op cit. Bopleslaw is not recognized as "Righteous"


MUELLER, Stefan (not related)
MUSIAL, Franciszek
MUSKIETORZ, Marta, wife
MUSKIETORZ, Anastazja, daughter
MUSZALOWSKI, Janina, wife
MUSZALOWSKI, Zdzislaw, son

MUSZYNSKI, Jerzy, son

After 48 years of not seeing each other, Morris Wajcer was reunited with his rescuer, Jerzy Muszynski. Jerzy lived with his mother, widow of Jan, killed by the Germans in 1939. They resided in a section of Warsaw, where 30% of the population was Jewish. Poles and Jews went to the same schools, and played together. Anna had a grocery shop near the Vistula River. Jerzy was 14 at the outbreak of the war (September 1939). Wajcer who was also 14, lived with his parents and six brothers in Grodzisk Mazowiecki, ca. 30 km from Warsaw. They were all rounded up and either deported to the Treblinka extermination camp, or to the Warsaw ghetto. They all perished, except his twin brother, Dov, who escaped from the ghetto, fought in the Lublin underground and was reunited with his sibling in 1945. Morris avoided the raid and headed off for Warsaw, trying to survive on the street. He found a job at the theatre and there he met Jerzy, who was a stagehand. Invited several times to Jerzy's home, one day he told them that he was Jewish. Mother and son decided to save him. Anna became his "auntie" and Jerzy his "cousin". Morris became even an altar boy, and during the Catholic religious ceremonies carried the crucifix and sang the hymns, even better than his Catholic "brother". Jerzy, when riding on his bicycle near the ghetto, would toss bread into it. But one day the Gestapo held Morris for several days of questioning and Jerzy and his mother had to leave their house for fear of a search. The two fought in the underground. When the Germans tracked the two boys down on the shores of Vistula River, Morris swam across, right into the hands of the Russians on the other shore and he was free. Jerzy, who did not swim, was taken prisoner and held for a few months until the end of the war. The last time they saw each other was in October 1945 at Jerzy's wedding. Morris married a year later and in 1951 went to Canada. But he returned to Poland for the 50th anniversary of the Ghetto Uprising (1993). He found in the telephone book 14 addresses with the name Jerzy Muszynski. He called them up, until he found his long time "brother". Morris Wajcer brought Jerzy for a month's stay in Canada and filed an application to have him and his mother recognized as "Righteous". See: the articles in The Gazette, Montreal, Aug. 15, 1993, p. A1 and The Canadian Jewish News, Sept. 2, 199, p. 26.

MUSZYNSKI, Katarzyna (1886-) (not related)
MUSZYNSKI-KOWALIK, Maria (1922-) daughter

Mother and daughter lived in Olkusz. In June 1942 Germans liquidated the ghetto and transported the Jews to Auschwitz. The two women helped Rela and Tobiasz Zulberszac who managed to escape the transfer. They went to Austria. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

MUZOLF, Stanislaw
MUZOLF, Stanislawa, wife
MYRTA, Jozef
MYRTA, Katarzyna, wife

MYSZKOROWSKI, Boguslaw Tadeusz (1911-1985)

Until 1939 Boguslaw's father was the owner of a fashion house in Warsaw and of the estate of Zdzary, near Nowe Miasto. Boguslaw, a student of the Commerce Academy, helped Jews. He managed to extricate from the transport to the Treblinka extermination camp Felicja and Ruth Przysuch from Nowe Miasto, organized false documents for them and brought them to Warsaw, where they stayed till the Warsaw Uprising. He married Felicja and they left for his father's estate. Ruth also survived the war. Boguslaw helped also the physician Stefan L. and his son Aleksander from Rawa Ruska, whom he harbored at the same estate and in 1942 aided them to reach Warsaw. The doctor and his son also survived the war. See: Grynberg, op. cit.