|RACHALSKI, Wanda (1918-)
Wanda lived with her husband
Alfred Ludomir in Warsaw. In the fall of 1941 Wanda met at her parents-in-law,
Alfred and Anna Rachalski, an 8 years old Jewish girl, Anita.Her father
was a physician from Lvov, interned in Romania. Her mother had been a pupil in
a school in Przemysl, directed by Wanda's parents.Anita's mother, though
provided with false identification, was persecuted by blackmailers and asked
the Rachalskis to save her child. They in turn proposed to Wanda to take care
of the little girl. So Anita became officially the niece of Wanda's husband.
In 1944 Wanda brought home another Jewish girl, Krysia, who had no family. After
the Warsaw Uprising, Wanda with both girls, found herself in the Pruszkow camp.She
placed Krysia with the Orlowski family at Milanowek and with Anita she moved
to Mogily, near Skierniewice, where they stayed till the end of the war. Anita's
mother died there. Anita L., now a physician in Poland, wrote in 1978 that her
father wished to repay the Rachalskis for saving his daughter. The latter did
not want to hear about any material reward, always treating Anita as their beloved
niece. Anita added that especially thanks to the care, heart and family warmth
she received from Wanda, she was healed not only physically but also psychologically
from her complexes of hurt and injustice. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
Franciszka resided in Warsaw.Since June 1944 she hid in her apartment
Anna Grajdinger from Rawa Ruska, sheltered before, since 1942, by her brother,
Pawel Rustowka. Franciszka also helped other Jews, like Stefan and Irena Duldig,
for whom she organized false Kennkarten. Pawel Rustowka does not seem to
be recognized as "Righteous". See: Grynberg, op. cit.
RACZYNSKI, Stefan (1921-1995)
Stefan came from a noble
family. His parents had a farm at Balingrodek, in the Vilna region.
In 1942 they harbored a group of Jews who avoided the massacre. The
Raczynskis took under their care a young woman, Soszana, whose parents
were killed. Soszana's parents were both teachers of Hebrew, which
they spoke at home. Her brother went in 1934 to Israel, to study
at the University of Haifa. Soszana's father was killed in 1941;
her mother was killed in the ghetto, which Soszana escaped, finding temporary
refuge with various Polish families. Finally she met Stefan Raczynski,
who took her to their farm. The Raczynski family received her warmly
and called her Zuzia (diminutive of Zuzanna). They had many acquaintances,
as the Polish scouting had good relations with Jewish Abe Kovner's Zionists.
Anti-Semitism there was non-existent. In the winter of 1942 the Germans
in an "Aktion" caught many Jews and shot them, except a group of ca. 17
young ones. The Raczynskis and other Polish families helped them.
For Chanukah and Christmas of 1942 Stefan's mother prepared a feast for
all the Jews who were saved. As some ate only kosher food, she went
to Niemenczyn, bought special pots and cooked for them according to their
special rules. Denunciations occurred also, like killing of Jews
by Polish and Lithuanian bandits. Stefan was arrested, but Soszana
managed to free him. Stefan saved her again when the Lithuanians
burnt the refuge in which she stayed. He placed her with his father's
sister. When some other bandits wanted to shoot both of them, Stefan's
aunt run to the priest, who said them that Zuzia is not a Jew, because
he himself baptized her. He shamed the bandits, who were later incarcerated.
Nobody from Stefan's family asked Soszana to convert to the Catholic religion.
Then Stefan moved her to his mother's brother. In 1944 they returned
to Vilna. The Germans, retreating before the Russians, burnt the
city. This time the Soviets arrested Stefan. Soszana pleaded
with them, bringing with her the attestations that he saved many Jews.
Stefan was released but they were in utmost misery, as the Soviets took
their farm, animals, everything. The young couple decided to go to
Israel, not without difficulties, as the new authorities did not want him
to give him a passport, and the Israeli embassy the visa. They arrived
in Israel in 1960. In Israel the life of poverty continued.
Nobody wanted to hear his or her story, except some Jews saved by Stefan,
living in America, who sent him an auto. The taxes for it put them in debt,
but they were happy to have it. Yad Vashem recognized Stefan as "Righteous"
in 1966, but their great poverty continued. The couple felt that
nobody cared. Other Poles who saved Jews were in similar conditions.
There were cases of maltreating. This found echo in the press, radio
and TV. Stefan did not want to appear on TV, as not to shame the
young State of Israel, but his grown up children convinced him to go, in
order to help others in similar circumstances. In 1985 in that TV
show appeared the Israeli president, Herzog, strongly in favor of help
to rescuers. The Knesset debated the question and in 1995, under
its leader Shevach Weiss (the present ambassador in Poland, who had been
also saved by some Poles) decided that such Poles must get help from the
State of Israel; this resulted in betterment of their situation.
Then the couple started to worry where they will be buried. The rabbi
of Tel Aviv, Lau, found a solution. He assigned a portion of the
cemetery to the burial of the "Righteous" and their Jewish wife or husband,
saying that the "Righteous" has a right to life after death. Stefan
died in November of 1995 and has the 32nd place there. Soszana is
happy now and writes poetry. She also translated Polish poetry into
Hebrew and vice-versa, like the poem by Chaim Chefer, that follows its
English translation shown here after all those killed and also in Grynberg.
See: Grynberg, op cit. and Isakiewicz, op. cit.
see ZBIK-RADKIEWICZ, H.
RADLINSKI, Jadwiga, physician
Dr. Radlinski resided in
Warsaw and worked in the Warsaw University Surgical Clinic. She belonged
to that group of physicians who eliminated the traces of circumcision,
operated on noses and ears of Jews, to make them appear less Semitic.
She also led out of the
ghetto the two children of the Rotsztejn medical couple. After many
trials she placed them in an orphanage where they survived the war.
She kept Dr. Cecylia Frendler in her apartment until the Warsaw Uprising
(1944). They left Warsaw together. Dr. Frendler settled in
the USA. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
RADOMSKI, Zofia, wife
She was the mother of
Stanislawa Karsov-Szymaniewska, (q.v.), and of Marian Przedpelski, a Polish
Army officer killed in Auschwitz (prisoner No. 21480), sister of Leszek Przedpelski
and aunt of Jerzy Przedpelski, who died in the Warsaw Uprising. She helped the Wermus family with food, first on the "Aryan" side
and then in the ghetto; the food was brought there by 14 years old Liliana
Szymaniewska, daughter of Stanislawa Karsov-Szymaniewska. The Wermuses did
not want to leave the ghetto and perished there. Janina co-operated with
her daughter in the intelligence work, consisting in deciphering denunciations
addressed to the German authorities and warning endangered people, often Jews. It
was also necessary to provide them with false identification, shelter, food
and money. Janina, against all rules of security, often gave food to
Jewish children who came to her. She could not shelter them due to the
objections of her daughter, Stanislawa, who, also against such rules, kept
in her home already three such children, two Jewish women and an English soldier
escapee from a German POW camp. On top of that, she had a German outpost
directly in front of her house. See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit.
RADWANEK, Aniela (Nella?)
Aniela lived in Cracow.
During all the years of the occupation she harbored in her apartment a
Jewish girl, Miriam Landsberg and intermittently took care of her brother
and younger sister. She also sheltered in her home Ida Ran, who escaped
from the Plaszow camp. Both girls survived and left Poland.
Miriam kept contact with her benefactress. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
RADWANEK, Jerzy, (1919-)
pilot and art Professor
Jerzy graduated from the
Polish Air Force Academy in Deblin in 1939. He fought in the September
campaign, became a POW, but escaped from the camp to return to his native
Cracow. Asked to forward abroad Polish intelligence material, he
attempted to fly a plane from Poland to Hungary, but he was caught, terribly
beaten and sent to Auschwitz, where he stayed from 1940 till 1945.
Here he became a member of the secret underground organization. Working
as an electrician he had some measure of liberty in the camp. In
his toolbox he transported food and medicines, stolen from the Germans
and brought them to the Jews, (especially Weigl's vaccine against typhus)
whose plight moved him deeply. He often purposefully caused a short
circuit in a Jewish compound to be called to fix the light. This
gave him the possibility to deliver food and medication, when his guard
had a moment of inattention. Once, with a long pole, he tore a piece
of meat from the snout of a German dog. He was tortured for that
for three consecutive days, being suspended by his arms, tied in the back.
Another time he lost his teeth from beatings. They called him "the
Jewish uncle", especially cherished by the Jewish women whom he helped.
One of them, Helena Hamermesz, recognized him when they met on the occasion
of the anniversary of liberation from Auschwitz. After the war Jerzy
Radwanek studied art, became a professor and chief of the municipal art
department of Cracow. He teaches and takes part in painting exhibitions,
continuing his first love, flying. Witold Lilienthal, an engineer,
interviewed Jerzy on the turn of 1994-1995 in Montreal and wrote a beautiful
account of his exploits.
Helena together with Maria
Dicker-Srebrnik (q.v.) and Hanna Rudowicz-Reiss (q.v.) built a shelter
for seven (7) Jews. They had escaped the transport to Belzec from
Lvov, in August 1942. During two years the three women took care
of them. See: Grynberg, op cit
RADZIKOWSKI, Anna, wife?
RADZIO, Helena (1904-1973)
RADZIO, Slawek (1924-1966)
RADZIO, Jerzy (1925-) son
RADZIO, Maria (1929-1952)
The Radzios lived in Warsaw.
In October 1942 Germans drove a column of Jews on the Modlin highway.
Slawek and Jerzy led out of that column four (4) people: Lea Batz, her
son Leon and his wife Dora Lipszyc and her brother Adam Lipszyc.
They hid them in the attic of their home. In that home there lived
also a Polish policeman and not far away was an artillery post. The
Germans requisitioned for their doctor the only room from which there was
an access to the attic. The two brothers in the absence of the doctor
led out their charges and took them to the Wieczorkiewicz family at Dabrowka
Szlachecka. When the German physician left their house, the fugitives
returned to them and remained there until the end of the war. The
Wieczorkiewicz family does not seem to be recognized. See: Grynberg,
RADZIWILL, Izabela, princess
RAFALSKI, Aniela, wife
RAFALSKI, Bronislawa, daughter
RAFALSKI, Maria, daughter
RAJCHOWSKI, Maria (1909-1989)
RAJCHOWSKI, Ireneusz, son
The Rajchowskis living in
Warsaw helped Jewish children, who sneaked from the ghetto to get some
food. One such child, Witold Gora, who knew Maria, came to her asking
for help. He stayed with the family for half a year, but had to leave
as the janitor and neighbors started to get interested in him. In
1986 he attested that he was kept and fed by them without any payment and
that Ireneusz, who was then a teenager, defended the Jewish children from
the other children who shouted that they are Jews. Ireneusz also
led a Jewish girl to a forester at Miszewo, near Warka.
See: Grynberg, op. cit.
RAJEWSKI, Eugeniusz Boleslaw
RAJEWSKI, Ewa, physician
RAJSZCZAK, Weronika, wife
RAJSZCZAK, Miroslawa, daughter
RAJSZCZAK, Tadeusz, son
Feliks Rajszczak was one
of the many who co-operated with the RPZ or Zegota (Council for Aid to
Jews). Zegota had ca. one hundred (100) sections. According
to a letter by Adolf Berman, the Jewish Secretary of the Zegota, to Teresa
Preker(owa), dated Feb. 26, 1977, there were others, especially meritorious
in that activity, and he mentioned: Prof. Maria Grzegorzewski, a
distinguished theatre artist, Irena Solski, psychologist, Janina Buchholtz-Bukolski
(q.v.), Irena Sawicki (q.v.) educator. Further there was Dr. Ewa
Rybicki, scouting activist, Irena Kurowski, school principal, Prof. Stanislaw
Ossowski and Prof. Maria Ossowski, Dr. Jan Zabinski, zoo director (q.v.)
and his wife Antonina, a writer, (q.v.). Still others were Stefania
Sempolowski, the unforgettable director of children's theatres, Jan Wesolowski
(q.v.) Sylwia Rzeczycki, (q.v.) Maria Laski, Maria Derwisz-Parnowski.
Great merits had Zofia Latallo, Zofia Rodziewicz, former Senator, Dr. Regina
Fleszar and others. Beside the university educated people there were
others, like Waleria Malaczewski, Antonina Roguski, Jadwiga Leszczanin,
Zofia Debicki (q.v.). Manual workers were not absent either, like
Stanislaw Michalski, tailor, Kajszczak, from Lomianki and Pawel Harmuszko,
farmers, Kazimierz Kuc, laborer and many others. Only those who have
the letters (q.v.) after their name have been recognized as "Righteous"up
to the end of 1999. See: Prekerowa, op. cit.
RAK-BLASZCZYK, Helena, daughter
RAK, Stefan, son
RAK, Edward (not related)
RAK, Ludwik (not related)
RAK, Maria, wife
RAKSA, Aniela, wife
RATAJCZYK, Wladyslawa, wife
RATOMSKI, Roman, son, physician
RATYNSKI, Natalia, wife
RDZANOWSKI, Klara, wife
REGENT, Kazimierz, brother
REGENT, Janina, Kazimierz's
REGULA, Alojzy, (Alejs)
REGULA, Gertruda, (Trudka)
REGULA, Hejdla, daughter
REGULA, Wilhelm, (Willi)
REGULA, Antoni (not related)
REGULA, Maria, wife? sister?
REGULA, Wiktoria, born STAWOWY
REGULA, Wiktoria's father-in-law
REGULA, Wiktoria's mother
REGULA, Wladyslaw (not related)
REGULA, Rozalia, wife
see GALIKOWSKI-REICHER, L.
REISS-RUDOWICZ, Hanna see
REITER, Joanna, nun (Sister
REJCZAK, Antonina, wife
REK, Tadeusz (1906-1968)
REK, Wanda, (1912-) wife
Tadeusz Rek, resident of
Warsaw, representative of the Popular Party, joined the Zegota on Jan 12,
1943, became its vice-president and, with Leon Feiner, member of its Auditorial
Commission. He had under his care ca. 300 Jews. His apartment
served as an important place of Zegota's meetings and activities.
Therefore it could be only a temporary shelter for a few days for some
Jews. However, a Jewish woman, Lucyna B., stayed there permanently
as a nurse to Wanda's and Tadeusz's child. Tadeusz calculates that
some kind of Zegota's help (financial, legal, i.e. issuing false documents,
sheltering, medical care, children's care) was being given to 40,000 Jews
(50,000 according to Arczynski) in the "General Gouvernment" area (central
Poland under German administration). Meanwhile, in the same
period, the Bund organization took care of a few hundred Jews. It
exerted very energetic pressure on the Delegate in Poland of the Polish
Government-in-Exile, in London, to raise the amount of funds allocated
to Zegota's operations as well as to undertake a forceful action against
the blackmailers and extortionists. As to Wanda, she busied herself
with placing homeless Jews with friends and acquaintances. See: Grynberg,
op cit. and Prekerowa, op. cit.
REK, Wanda (another one,
not related) see NIZIOLEK, Kazimierz , husband
REK, Wladyslaw (not related)
REK, Marianna, wife
REKLAJTIS , (REKRAJTIS ?)
Stanislaw (1903-1955) son
Romana (1908-) Stanislaw's wife
The Reklajtis lived at Swider,
near Warsaw. With them there lived also Romana's mother, Ludwika
Grzybowski (1880-1964) (q.v.) and a friend of Stanislaw, Tadeusz Zabokrzecki
(q.v.) who had to hide from the Gestapo. Before the war Ludwika rented
rooms in her house. The Jewish family Bledowski often stayed there.
In May 1943 the entire Bledowski family came to Ludwika Grzybowski: Abraham,
his wife Regina and daughters Edwarda, Ita and Sabina. In consultation
with all the occupants of the house, the Reklajtis family took all five
in. As their permanent stay was impossible, Ita and Sabina, who had
the best "Aryan" look, rented an apartment at Michalin and sold bread.
They brought their parents and hid them in the cellar. All survived
the war and emigrated, except Sabina, who died shortly after. See:
Grynberg, op. cit.
REMUT, Stefania, wife
REMUT, Feliks, son
REMUT, Jerzy, son
REMUT, Jozef, son
REMUT, Kazimierz, son
RENK-MIKULSKI, Danuta see
MIKULSKI, Jan & Melania, parents?
see WASOWSKI-RENOT, E.
RESZKA, (RESZKO ?) Jozef
RESZKA, Klara (Malgorzata)
RESZKA, Henryk, son
RESZKA, Maria, daughter
RESZKA, Stefan, son
The Reszka family farmed
at Slugocin, Lublin prov. Four brothers Waserman, Bence, Boruch,
Jakub and Mojzesz came to them in 1942 and remained till the end of the
war, hidden in a bunker in the barn. Jakub went to Paris, the three
other brothers to Israel. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
RETKA, Magdalena, wife
see POTOCKI, Jerzy
see LECH-REZLER, H.
see PELC-REKAS, J.
ROBAKIEWICZ, Pelagia, wife
RODZIEWICZ, Wiktoria, daughter?
ROGALA, Witold (1914-1967)
ROGALA, Marianna (1919-)
The Rogalas lived in Warsaw
with their small son Krzysztof. Witold was the manager of the Warsaw
Housing Cooperative. In April 1943, just before the Ghetto Uprising,
someone brought them from a shop, a 5 years old girl, Marta Elbinger, then
under a Polish name. Soon there appeared in their home her cousin,
Lutek, and her mother's sister. They left with the Rogalas addresses
of family in the USA and in Palestine. Marta was not hidden; she
moved freely as a child of the Rogalas's relatives. In September
1945 the child's aunt, Tusia Gewircman, came for her and took Marta to
Israel. In 1948 she wrote that Marta is happy in the school with
other children from Poland and that she speaks of the Rogalas often and
remembers all the good care, good food and toys, which she got from them.
Even before, already in 1946, Jakub Rock, who had left Poland in 1938,
wrote from the USA thanking the Rogalas for saving his niece, telling:
"People who are ready for a one time heroic effort are relatively many;
but people able to sustain the danger for years are very few. It
takes an exceptional moral attitude". See: Grynberg, op cit.
* ROGINSKI, Janina
Janina lived in Wegrow,
Siedlce prov. She hid in her barn some Jews. When they were
discovered by the military police from Wegrow, they shot her together with
the harbored Jews on June 15, 1943. She was awarded posthumously
the medal "Righteous Among the Nations" and was mentioned here in the list
of "Those Who Paid with their Lives"
ROGOWSKI, Eugenia, wife
The 15 years old girl, Nina
Frenkel, after the death of her mother, with whom she escaped the ghetto,
roamed the fields in search of refuge. She went to a village near
Zloczow, where the Rogowskis harbored already her aunt and cousin.
The family accepted her immediately and concealed her in a hole dug under
a farm building, although Germans stayed in the Rogowskis' house.
The three women saw there the end of the occupation. The couple was
conferred their certificate and medal on Oct. 16, 1999 in Cracow, as announced
the Israeli Embassy in Poland.
(not related) see CIOSMAK-BUSZKO, Anna, sister?
(not related) see FALSKI, M.
ROGOZINSKI, Alfred, brother
ROGOZINSKI, Wiktor, brother
ROGOZINSKI, Albert (another
one, not related)
ROGOZINSKI, Jan (related
to the three brothers: Adam, Alfred and Wiktor)
ROGOZINSKI, Salomea, Jan's
ROGUSKI, Helena, wife
ROGUSZEWSKI Boleslaw's wife
ROGUSZEWSKI, Marian (Maniek)
ROKOSZ, Franciszka and
ROKOSZ, Stefania, sister?
ROLIRAD, Henryk, alias "ZARSKI",
Henryk was originally from Poznan. He became acquainted with Jews in Zbaszyn (Poland) in 1938, while working on behalf of Jewish refugees, escaping from the Third Reich. About ten to twenty thousands of them found themselves in that locality, from which they were released little by little to their different abodes, among whom there was a young woman, Magda Einstein. They were ex-Polish citizens, who having settled in Germany, did not renew their passports, and thus lost their Polish citizenship. They were persecuted during the "Kristallnacht" (November 9-11,1938).
Col. Antoni Smodlibowski, Polish military attach6 in Leipzig (Germany), went to the Germans to protest that persecution. They told him that if he does not stop, he will not leave alive. But the Colonel, to the Germans'- fury, opened the door of the consulate to those Jews, taking into it the old ones and providing tents for the younger ones on its grounds.
Henryk Rolirad, member of the AK, of the Battalion VI, commanded by Captain Henryk Iwanski (q.v.), was put in charge of Jews extricated from the Warsaw ghetto. He led them to shelters on the "Aryan" side and provided them with false documents. During one of these missions, Henryk was arrested. While being transported to prison by the Germans, he was gravely wounded, when some young resistance men tossed a grenade into the truck. Henryk lost consciousness, but regained it when fire broke out. With his leg shattered, he managed to crawl out of the burning truck and reach a nearby store, in which he took shelter. In spite of remaining a cripple, having to walk on crutches; he continued his work on behalf of Jews. Among others he placed Magda Einstein, whom he met in Zbaszyn, with his acquaintance. Three Gestapo men on the street, demanded her identity papers, which she produced (having them from Henryk). But a Volksdeutche arrested Magda and forced her to call Henryk and demand 50,000 zlotys, to be delivered in one hour, an enormous sum of money at that time. Henryk managed to gather it and brought the sum to the blackmailer. Thereafter he placed Magda with his mother in Goclawek. The Volksdeutche, who had arrested Magda before, followed her to that town and broke into the house armed with a revolver. Magda escaped through the-back. Henry and his mother managed once again to gather 6,000 zlotys to get rid of the man. After the war Henryk and Magda married and in 1963, with their daughter, went to Israel. See: Bauminger, Righteous Among the Nations, op. cit.
ROMANIUK, Irena, wife
ROMANOWSKI, Henryka, sister
ROMANSEWICZ, Jozefa, nun
(Sister HERMANA) (1909-1984)
Sister Hermana was a nun
at Turkowice, like Sister Irena, i.e. Antonina Manaszczuk (q.v.).
The Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate, called in Polish "Sluzebniczki"
(Little Servants) accepted also boys. This was particularly dangerous,
as the Jewish boys were circumcised. Sister Hermana also accompanied
Jewish children from Warsaw to Turkowice, making the difficult journey,
through Lublin and Chelm, up to the very border of the "General Government"
with the Soviet zone, full of dangers and anxiety, especially when there
was more than one child. Sister Irena (above) described these trips
in detail. Usually it was Jadwiga Piotrowski, (q.v.) from Zegota,
who found the children and in consultation with Sister Stanislawa i.e.
Aniela Polechajllo (q.v.) Superior at Turkowice, notified the Sisters to
come for the children. The children went still through many other
dramatic events in the war years of 1944 and 1945. Two of them are
now known journalists and one an outstanding chemist. They affirm
that the Sisters never betrayed the trust they had in them. See:
Kurek, op cit. and Prekerowa, op. cit.
ROMANCZUK, Witold, son
ROMANSKI, Maria (1893-1956)
ROMANSKI, Jakub (1925-1989)
ROMANSKI, Jozef (1927-1975)
The family lived in Bochnia.
They knew the Jewish farmers Gutfreunds who had four married daughters.
Max Selinger, the husband of the eldest one, was a respected friend of
Jakub Romanski. In 1941 Gutfreund asked him to take over his farm
as he was not allowed to run it anymore. Jakub, 16 years old, maintained
contact with the Gutfreunds, now in the ghetto and especially with Max
Selinger. He became his liaison with Dr. Morgenbesser, in the Plaszow
camp. From the latter, he obtained addresses of people who transported
Jews across the border with Hungary. So with Jakub's help the following
persons were able to find themselves in Hungary: Max Selinger with his
wife and two daughters, Szwarc with his wife, Zygmunt and Artek Feders,
Kornberg with his daughter Matylda, Jozef Jakubowicz and Mundek Gretwer.
In 1942 the Gestapo was looking for Jakub. He fled to Warsaw and
even from there continued to send other Jews across the border: Anna Abeles
with her daughter Niusia, Romer with his 15 years old son Marian, Edward
Zurek, Dr. Zalewski with his wife and the sisters Bronka and Lonka.
See: Grynberg, op. cit.
ROMASZKAN-GAWEL, Teresa see
ROMATOWSKI, Stanislaw see
see NICZEWSKI-RONTALER, Z.
see KONIECZNY, Maciej & Marianna, parents
see BLYSZCZUK-ROSENCWEIG, M.
ROSLAN, Amelia, wife
The Roslans resided in Warsaw
with their two children, in a three-room apartment.
An unknown Jewish woman,
Hanna, who stole from the ghetto, appeared in their home seeking a way
of saving three Gutgold boys, who were her nephews: Jacob, Shalom and David
(10, 7, 5). Their mother had died and their father had fled to Russia.
Aleksander, even without consulting his wife, offered the woman his apartment
as shelter. When she promised him a big reward after the war, he
replied: "If we succeed in getting out of the Nazi hell alive, reward me
then. If not, what use is money?" And so the boys were smuggled out
of the ghetto and came to live with the Roslans. Alexander suggested
to Hanna that she also come to them with her relatives. But Hanna
wanted to spend the Passover with her co-religionists. The first
day of Passover the Nazis launched their "Aktion" and Hanna was deported
to Auschwitz. For a time Aleksander could send her some help but
soon she vanished there. Jacob and Shalom came down with scarlet
fever. Aleksander got them admitted to a hospital, transporting them
inside a sofa. Shalom died on the operation table, but Jacob survived.
As his recovery necessitated additional expenses, Roslan with his family
moved to a one-room apartment to cover the cost of his treatment.
When strangers came, the boys hid under the bed or behind the kitchen cabinet.
Aleksander bought an ultraviolet lamp to replace the lack of sunshine.
Neglecting his own children, he bought them exotic and expensive fruit.
Once the Blue Police, alerted by a neighbor, came to check. The Roslans
got them drunk and he forgot to search for the Jews. In the Warsaw
Uprising the Roslans lost a son. Like all the inhabitants, they were
expelled and for half a year wandered with their charges from place to
place. After the war Aleksander went with his family and the boys
to Germany. They parted there; he left for the USA and the Gutgold
brothers went to Israel. In 1962 Jacob, an Israeli nuclear chemist,
with his wife and daughter, found them after a 15 years old search, in
New York. Alexander stated: "He was just like our own son."
Jacob affirms ". I have no words to describe the attitude, devotion
and self-sacrifice of this man during all the time we spent in his house
(four years)." See: Paldiel, op. cit.
ROSLONIEC, Julian Stefan
Julian took care of ca. thirty
(30) Jews in Warsaw. Some of them he took into his bachelor's apartment.
When he left for work he had, for their protection, to lock them in.
Many others did similarly, often on their own initiative, without ever
knowing of Zegota. See: Prekerowa, op. cit.
Upon her neighbor's request,
Hilda took into her apartment a Jewish woman, Aleksandra Cwibaum, whose
brother, Kazimierz, also hid there occasionally. Both survived.
Information provided by the Israeli Embassy in Warsaw about the awarding
of the medal "Righteous Among the Nations" in Warsaw on Jan. 14, 1999.
ROSTKOWSKI, Joanna, wife
ROSTKOWSKI, Michalina, daughter
ROSTKOWSKI, Ludwik , physician
Dr. Rostkowski, ophthalmologist,
with Drs Jan Rutkiewicz (q.v.) and Dr. Tadeusz Stepniewski initiated and
edited the "Abecadlo Lekarskie" (Medical ABC). This medical journal
reached ca. 100 medical centers. Seconded him his son, Ludwik Jr.,
a medical student , belonging also to the Coordinating Committee of Democratic
and Socialist Doctors in Warsaw (1940-1944). Since 1943 thanks to
Marek Arczynski (q.v) the Committee cooperated with it Emilia Hizowa (alias
"Barbara") and Celina Jezierska-Tyszko (alias "Celinka"). The latter
toured several times in a week secret "letter boxes"where the doctors deposited
the addresses of (Jewish) patients who needed medical attention.
She transmitted them to Ludwik Rostkowski Jr. for his father. The
son often made the first visit of reconnaissance. Ludwik Sr. contacted
the necessary specialists. So the cooperating doctors had from several
to several dozens vists to make by month, sometimes every day, often bringing
beside the medical care, also free medicines, food, garments and money
from Zegota. They issued also certificates of injection against typhus
necessary to all, including Jews, to receive food rations, and death certificates
for the organization of the burial. Dr. Rostkowski, with his wife
Janina , a nurse, and their son harbored also Jews also in their house.
They had to flee from it, alerted that they are wanted by the Gestapo,
but did not stop their activities up to the Warsaw Uprising (Aug. 1, 1944).
For more information about the Committee look also under the name of Dr.
Stanislaw Popowski (q.v.). See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit.
and especially Prekerowa, op. cit. .
ROSTOCKI, Ignacy's mother,
ROSZAK, Celina (ROSZEK,
ROSCISZEWSKI Lech Marian
ROSCISZEWSKI, Lech Marian's
ROSCISZEWSKI, Janina, daughter
ROSCISZEWSKI, Michal, son
Witold (not related) & Anna see ROTHENBURG, W.A..
see KACZMARCZYK-ROTMAN, S.
see BOHOSIEWICZ-ROTTER, H.
ROWINSKI, Aleksandra (1894-1981)
Dr. Aleksandra worked in
Warsaw, lately as the Chief of the Children's Department in her hospital.
She was highly decorated. In 1942 she took into her flat two Jewish
women doctors, whom she knew from the university: Dr. Roza Herman and Dr.
Marylka. In mid-1944 a Blue policeman advised her that she was watched
and suspected of hiding Jews. The two doctors had to leave.
Dr. Roza found a shelter on an estate in the province of Lublin.
Both survived. In 1985 Dr. Roza stated that Aleksandra not only sheltered
and fed them; she even gave her the use of her own bed, installing herself
in the bathroom. She devoted herself also to others. In her
memory she remains as an outstanding personality, as a physician and as
a human being. Besides her, other physicians in Warsaw were also
particularly meritorious in helping Jews: Dr. F. Kanabus (q.v.), Assistant
Prof. Stanislaw Kapuscinski, who perished in Auschwitz, Dr. Ignacy Olesinski,
Dr. Stanislaw Swital (q.v.) Dr. Szalecki-Wojtowicz, Dr. Tadeusz Badniak.
Franciszek Raszeja, Professor of Medicine in the Poznan University, went
to the ghetto with a proper pass to give medical attention to a patient.
Some Germans burst into the room and killed both the patient and his doctor.
See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit., Grynberg, op. cit.
ROZEN, Zofia Katarzyna
see BLYSZCZUK-ROSENCWEIG, M.
ROZWADOWSKI Dionizy's wife
ROZANOWSKI, Stefania, wife
Marianna lived at the presbytery
of her brother, the priest Stanislaw Szczepanski at Wilga, near Garwolin.
Germans organized in that locality a forced labor camp, which they liquidated
in 1941. The sisters Lea and Luba Berliner from Skierniewice escaped
from that camp and came to the presbytery for help. When Germans
searching for the fugitives appeared at the kitchen door, Marianna sent
the two girls by another exit to church and invited the six soldiers with
their officer to a meal. The priest gave the girls false birth certificates,
thanks to which they both went to Germany for work as Christian Poles.
Marianna's help benefited also other Jews like Dr. Szymon Goldszmit and
his wife. Marianna obtained false documents for them and placed the
doctor with her acquaintances in Warsaw. She also took his wife to
her mother's in Lowicz. She likewise helped Dr. Berman and his wife.
The Berliner parents left some valuables with their physician in Skierniewice.
When Luba asked him to return them, that doctor called a Blue policeman
to take her to the ghetto. Marianna bribed him and facilitated her
release later. She said after the war that she did it not for material
gains, but out of humanitarian and religious concerns. See: Grynberg,
see GUTOWSKI, Leonia, mother?
ROZEWICZ, Jozef (1898-)
ROZEWICZ, Anna (1902-1958)
ROZEWICZ, Emil (1926-) son
ROZEWICZ, Ferdynand Michal,
The Rozewicz family lived
at Jaworowo, Stanislawow prov. Emil Rozewicz brought two girls from
the Bolechowo ghetto. They knew him as they were from the nearby
village of Sulkow. The family arranged for them a shelter in the
loft of the stable where they stayed up to the end of the occupation.
See: Grynberg, op. cit.
see GARGASZ, Jakub, husband
ROZYCKI, Wladyslaw (not related)
ROZYCKI, Zbigniew (not related)
ROZYCKI, Zofia, wife
ROZYK, Eugeniusz (does not
appear on the 1999 List, but did before)
Genowefa Rudnicki from Boryslaw
helped Jews from Lvov. She led out of the Lvov ghetto Szoszana Tuchfeld,
Adela Zalcberg, Markus Ejlberg and his brother Henryk. She made for
them a shelter and provided them with food till the end of the war.
Henryk Ejlberg went to Argentina, the others to Israel. Genowefa
also went to Israel and married Markus Ejlberg. See: Grynberg, op.
RUDNICKI, Maria (not related)
RUDNICKI, Konrad, son
RUDOWICZ-REISS, Hanna (1910-)
Hanna resided in Lvov.
Together with Marta Dicker-Srebrnik and Helena Radwanski-Bielec she harbored
and fed seven fugitives Jews, who escaped in August 1942 from a transport
from the Lvov ghetto to Belzec. After the war Hanna married one of
the men she saved, Mosze Reiss and went with him to Israel, as also did
Marta Dicker Srebrnik. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
RUDYK-KOWALIK, Aurelia see
KOWALIK, Franciszek & Teofila, parents?
RUDZKI, Barbara see
STRZELECKI, Mrs., mother
see DOMAGALA, Jan, husband
see NOWINSKI, Waclaw & Janina, parents?
see LESINSKI, Wladyslaw & Aleksandra, parents?
RUSZKOWSKI, Marianna, wife
RUSZKOWSKI, Weronika (not
RUSZKOWSKI, Danuta, daughter
RUTKIEWICZ, Jan, physician
Dr. Jan Rutkiewicz, internist,
edited "Abecadlo Lekarskie" ("A Medical ABC") a medical journal, identifying
its issues by letters of the alphabet. Others in the editorial staff
of the journal were Dr. Ludwik Rostkowski, and Dr. Tadeusz Stepniewski.
It was strongly in favor of helping Jews, seen simply as human beings,
needing help without any distinction of race or religion and as allies
in the struggle against the common enemy. The Coordinating Committee
of Democratic and Socialist Doctors was established in Warsaw in
the second part of 1940. It included several dozen-health specialists.
It worked by trios of physicians cooperating between them. One of
them had contacts with a superior trio and each of them organized his own
trio, whose work he supervised and to which he transmitted the instructions
from above. To the patients a doctor came not only with his medical
tools and medication, but often also with garments, food and money from
Zegota. Home visits were numerous: from several to several dozen
per month, for each doctor. In certain periods there was not a day
without visits to "non-Aryans". Natalia Rutkiewicz was one of the
nurses belonging to this select group, along with other nurses. The
medical student. See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit and
Prekerowa, op. cit.
RYBAK, Franciszka (not related)
Franciszka gave shelter,
food and sewing work to Sara and to her betrothed, Harry Mostysser.
She treated them whole-heartedly and in a friendly way, caring also for
their medical needs. The announcement of their decoration as "Righteous"
on May 6, 1999 in Lublin comes from the Israeli Embassy in Poland.
RYBAK, Janina (not related)
RYBAK, Jozefa (not related)
RYBAK, Waclaw, son?
RYBAK, Wladyslawa, wife
(the last two missing in the 1999 List)
The family of Jozefa Rybak
took part in the saving of brothers Izaak and Jakub then Steger, who had
been harbored before by several other Polish families. Both survived.
The conferring on the Rybaks of the Yad Vashem medals and certificates
as "Righteous" by the Israeli Ambassador in Poland, Yigal Antebi, took
place in Warsaw on Dec. 15, 1999.
RYBCZYNSKI, Irena see OSTROWSKI,
Kazimierz resided in Warsaw.
In his house lived his daughter who married the Jew Gorynski. Beside
her husband there lived also his mother. In October 1943 the entire
family was arrested and shot. In Kazimierz's house there stayed also
Eda Wandstein, who luckily managed to escape when the Gestapo came for
them. She survived and left Poland. Kazimierz, recognized in
1999 by Yad Vashem as "Righteous", got his medal on May 1st, 2000 in Warsaw,
as announced the Israeli Embassy in Poland.
see SREDNICKI, Stanislaw, husband
see KIELAN, Franciszek & Krystyna parents
see AUGUSTOWSKI-RYBOWICZ, K.
RYCHLEWICZ, Wladyslaw, professor
The Rychlewiczes lived in
Warsaw. They hid in their apartment 3 Jewish families, seven (7)
people. All survived. After the war Irena married one of the
men they saved, Mr. Noskowicz and in 1957 left with him for Israel.
See: Grynberg, op. cit.
Antoni lived in a village
near Sambor. Nearby lived the Erdman family: the parents, two daughters
and a 16 years old son, Icchak. In August 1942 the Germans deported
the Jews to the Sambor ghetto, the Erdmans among them. Their son
hid in Antoni's house, but could not stay there for long. Jan, Antoni's
son, gave him his own birth certificate and took him to Zdrohec, near Zabno
and helped him to settle there with a farmer, as Jan Rychlik. In
1957 Icchak went to Israel. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
RYGALSKI, Wladyslaw and
RYGALSKI, Zbigniew (brother?
RYKOWSKI, Izabella Zofia
RYKOWSKI, Janusz, son
RYMARZ, Jozef (1898-1981)
RYMARZ, Halina, wife
The Rymarz couple resided
in Warsaw. Jozef was a regular army officer and took part in the
September '39 campaign. During the occupation he was a member of
the AK. He brought food to the Griffenberg couple, which owned the
house in which the Rymarz couple stayed. In 1942 the six (6) members
of the Gorski family came to them for help: Miriam and Mosze, their
3 year old baby girl, Mosze's father and brother, and also Henryk Cynamon
who managed to escape from the ghetto. They knew the Gorskis from
before the war. Rymarz took them into his home. When it became
impossible to keep them longer, he moved them to his acquaintance, Kazimierz
and Irena Opel (q.v.) living at Bialogon Kielecki. Soon people started
to talk about Jews. Opel moved them elsewhere and the Gorskis joined
the partisans in the nearby forest. Gorski's brother, Leon and Henryk
Cynamon returned to Warsaw and were deported to Treblinka. After
the war the Gorskis settled in Israel. See: Grynberg, op. cit.
RYNIEWICZ, Bronislawa, wife
RYNIEWICZ, Danuta, daughter
RYNIEWICZ, Helena, daughter
RYNIEWICZ, Maria, daughter
see STRZALKOWSKI-RYNSKI, S.
RYSINSKI, Jozefa, alias ZIUTKA
"Ziutka" was a courier for
the Cracow branch of Zegota and as such one of the bravest and the most
dedicated among them all. These men and women reached forced labor
camps like Plaszow, Pustkow near Debica, Szebnia near Jaslo, Skarzysko-Kamienna,
Pionki and even the Auschwitz complex of camps as well as the Janowski
camp near Lvov. Large quantities of food bought on the black market
by Zegota, like flour, beans and groats were thus supplied to the Plaszow
camp. When its inmates were transferred to Brynica in the west Sudetes
in Czechoslovakia, the Poles sent them food and clothing. Ziutka,
beside these items, brought to the camps letters to and from the inmates,
the "grypsy". Several times she went to Lvov and in 1943 she escorted
from there to Cracow the known Jewish writer, Maksymilian Boruchowicz,
i.e. Michal Borwicz, who had escaped from the Janowski camp. From
that camp Ziutka extricated a 12 years old girl, Janina Hescheles.
Caught on one of those trips, she was brutally tortured and sent to the
Plaszow camp. See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit., Grynberg,
op. and Prekerowa, op. cit.
RYSZEWSKI, Henryk (1900-1072)
RYSZEWSKI, Irena (1900-1980)
Zofia (1927-) daughter
Henryk completed his studies
for the priesthood but was not ordained. He used to write for papers
considered anti-Semitic, but seeing the effects of racism he had a change
of heart. He harbored in his apartment in Warsaw thirteen (13) Jews.
Before doing it he asked his 12 years old daughter, Zofia, if she did not
mind sheltering Jews. From Lvov came Aleksander Artmanowicz, Leon
Fal and Izak Pinalis with his wife, and from Lodz Leon Funt with his wife
and a small daughter, also Markus Kasman with his brother-in-law, Anna
and Roza Lewin, Lipa Szymkiewicz, Ludwik Opal with his wife. When
a blackmailer approached Henryk, he replied to him: "As I do not get any
profits from my Jews, I can offer you only 400 zlotys monthly". His
daughter, Zofia, in order to keep the secret, was passive at school refusing
to join her friends in their underground activities, bringing thus their
disapproval on herself. See: Grynberg, op. cit. and Lukas, op. cit.:
"Did the Children Cry"
RYS, Jan Jozef (1920-)
Jan lived in Boryslaw.
During the liquidation of its ghetto, came over to him Adolf Wagner asking
for shelter. With him came his wife Roza and their 2 years old baby
girl, Felicja and his mother. Soon arrived still others: The Zarensky
couple and Dr. Henryk Kudysz. Jan prepared a shelter for them in
his wood shed. Eight (8) additional Jews joined them after a few
weeks; among them was Dr. Bronislaw Estreicher with his wife, and 10 years
old son Marian as well as the engineer Polajner with his wife. In
March 1944 a 13th person, Roza Symchowicz joined the twelve. Their
meals were prepared by Jan and by Janina Niemiec (q.v.) who lived there.
They brought every night 12 buckets of drinking water from a public hydrant,
located 50 meters from the shed, and took wastes at nighttime to the W.C.
outside the shed. Jan used to bring food for all of them by three
different routes, so as not to attract attention. To some Ukrainian
shops he used to bring flour for sale to make them think that he made a
business of it. Just before the arrival of the Red Army on Aug. 8,
1944 they faced a great danger: the retreating German soldiers installed
themselves in the yard and in the loft of the shed, just above the hidden
Jews. Fortunately all of them walked out of the shelter in good health
and "that was his greatest life success up to now" as Jan called it.
Se: Grynberg, op. cit.
Sylwia, a theosophist, was
one of the most active persons in saving Jews. Some she harbored
in her home like Mrs. Zajdler and Helena who came to her from Dr. Zofia
Garlicki, who was later executed in Auschwitz for helping Jews. For
others she procured all kinds of false documents through her wide contacts
with the underground, or, due to her nice smile and calm appearance from
the most unlikely persons, such as a Volksdeutche woman doctor. She
transferred money from Zegota to many Jews, bringing in return the original
receipts for it signed with their true Jewish names. This alone was
most dangerous. See: Prekerowa, op. cit., Smolski, op. cit., and
her own account, mostly about the merits of others in Bartoszewski &
Lewin, op. cit. (pp 170-174)
RZEPECKI, Bronislaw (not
Bronislaw was the secretary
of the Commune office at Olesnica, Kielce prov. In 1941 he started
there a branch of the future AK. Nevertheless he took into his home
the Mandelsman family, whom he knew before. Antoni Krol, a parish
priest from Olesnica and Stanislaw Krawczyk from the village of Strzelce
seconded him in that endeavor. After the war the Wandelsmans left
for Israel, but searched several years for their benefactors and when they
found them, wrote to them: "Our dear ones, we are here well in all respects,
but we are longing sometimes for you people of intellect and heart".
The priest Antoni Krol and Stanislaw Krawczyk are not recognized as "Righteous".
See: Grynberg, op. cit.
RZEPECKI, Jan (not related)
RZEPECKI, Stanislaw (not
see POGORZELSKI-RZONCOW, S.